Challenges Of European Integration For Business

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The Advantages And Challenges Of European Integration

The Advantages And Challenges Of European Integration

The last two decades represents a period of significant social, economic and political changes. Science and Technique are sectors were a great progress took place. So pressure on universities increase not only due to the needs of qualified manpower but also because political concerns. Higher Education in Europe changed for several reasons, since the new ways of teaching and learning, accountability and Europeanization. Even the European Integration process entered into education and, particularly, Higher Education. The policy of the EU in this sector as been of getting closer the national systems.

The trend of the internationalization of universities is perceptive and in the context of the European Integration. The scientific, educational and research activities demonstrates very well the clash between an international orientation and the national ties. The Erasmus process was contemporary of the speeding of integration with the Program of the Single Market. The idea that a European dimension should exist for national systems of Higher Education is a new political reality. The treaty of Maastricht brings the educational programs as a new area for the community's activity. Policy-making in the EU is differentiated and specialized . A true system of continuous negotiations took place between governments and differents territorial levels - supranacional, national, regional and local. In this context the Comission has a fundamental role. The EU establishes policies in several areas. So, many public policies which deals with everyday life of Europeans were determined by Brussels. The Europeanization of those policies can take place in different shapes. Europeanization is present in social areas as education. The European Union is more and more relevant to the actors of the member states. (Farrington, Dennis ( 2005), Pp. 13-18

The EU Charter and the European Convention

Throughout the drafting of the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, reference was made to the need, on the one hand, to have harmony with the European Convention on Human Rights and, on the other hand, to formulate the rights concerned in a way, which was more understandable and accessible to the ordinary citizen, and not simply to copy the wording used in the Convention. It is true that the rights enshrined in the Convention were agreed over 50 years ago. But by deliberately adopting an open-ended approach to interpreting the text, the European Court of Human Rights has managed to keep its standards in line with constantly changing social, economic and cultural conditions, and also ethical perceptions, in the contracting States.

Thus the Court has repeatedly used its individual judgments to clarify the scope and significance of the rights enshrined in the Convention. In the case of Ireland v. the United Kingdom, for instance, it stated that its "judgments in fact serve not only to decide those cases brought before the Court but, more generally, to elucidate, safeguard and develop the rules instituted by the Convention, thereby contributing to the observance by the States of the engagements undertaken by them ...
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