Discuss the difference and similarity of various approaches to national culture (Hofstede, Hall, Trompenaars, etc.). What are the advantages and shortcomings of making sense of national cultural diversity with these approaches?
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory identifies a number of dimensions that describe the national cultural values ??affect the values ??in the workplace and in organizations.
Power Distance Index (PDI): The index of power distance refers to the degree of acceptance in the less powerful members of a culture, the differences in power or inequality. The PDI will be greater to the extent that such differences in social or hierarchical structures (such as companies, institutions or families) are more pronounced and generally accepted.
Individualism (IDV): The IDV defines the degree to which individuals are integrated into society and the sense of belonging to the group. In a society with high IDV, for example, people tend to worry about themselves and their immediate family, while a very collectivist society, group ties are wider and the family unit is much larger (includes uncles, cousins ??and grandparents).
Masculinity (MAS): This indicator defines the tendency of a culture to behavior patterns of greater masculindad or femininity. Hofstede's study revealed that female values ??were similar between different cultures that masculine values. Masculine societies were more assertive and competitive with women, generally more modest and empathetic. In masculine societies there is a greater gap in male and female values, and women tend to be more competitive and assertive.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): The IAU is the societal acceptance of uncertainty and ambiguity versus absolute truth. According to Hofstede, a country with high UAI try to avoid risks, unstructured situations, or get out of the usual. These countries are more emotional, often reinforce security with strict laws, and philosophical and religious level, believe in absolute truth. By contrast, countries with low UAI are usually more thoughtful, tolerant and relativistic.
Long Term Orientation (LTO): This last dimension, added later, refers to the long-or short-term culture. The long-term orientation societies suggests thriftiness and perseverance, and for the short term, Hofstede talks more traditional societies, concerned with social obligations, and characterized by greater diplomacy and tact in dealing (avoiding bluntness in speech, for example, and speak more bluntly).
Satisfaction with restraint (Indulgence versus Restraint) Satisfaction describes a society that allows relatively free satisfaction of basic and natural human instincts that are related to enjoy life and have fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses the satisfaction of needs and regulates this by strict social norms.
The cultural differences describe averages and not values ??for individuals.
The contextual model of Edward T. Hall tries to explain how it affects the context, time management and space in intercultural communication , ie communication between cultures. Edward T. Hall was an anthropologist relevant social psychology of communication that made great discoveries about key cultural factors, particularly the factors of cultural and communicative context.
This model takes into account contextual contextualization of communication: since man is faced with a multitude of perceptual stimuli to which it ...