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This discussion will begin by identifying and describing examples of the use of scientific management by Target and the areas in which target could be reorganized using the principles of scientific management to increase efficiency and/or management's control over workers. In order to do so adequately, the discussion will also constitute recommendations on the changes that can be made to resolve the identified issues. The discussion will come to a concluding note after identifying and describing examples of centralization of power and/or oligarchies that can be implemented in the case of Target.
Target chooses to implement scientific management by making use of an infrastructure in which the time that the human capital channels into the workplace is carefully monitored to keep track of the amount of time that employees are spending performing work (and work-related activities) as well as the time that employees are spending in activities that are essentially non-productive. This enables Target to engage in a systematic evaluation of the net effort that an employee puts into his/her work and the outcome of that net effort (Wren, 2011). The purpose of this highly scientific and specific approach is to place the employee in a position where there is no room for an unintended deficiency of productivity inspite of sincere efforts. The system requires employees to update their activity logs which record the updates and enable the development and presentation of a larger picture in which the cause-and-effect relationship is more clearly apparent.
Even though the system that is being utilized to implement scientific management appears to be air tight, there are flaws in the system that are present and demand resolution in order to increase productivity and eliminate efficiency sinks. In order to increase efficiency and to address concerns regarding the management's control over workers, the management needs to bring about a change in their approach to the implementation of scientific management. They need to realize that the fundamentals behind scientific management principles are over a century old and the implementation of these principles is bound to clash with modern day workplace cultural intricacies. In essence, scientific management is still just as productive on paper, but the implementation of the system tends to bring forth challenges that are essentially behavioral in nature; which is an aspect to which scientific management gives little regard (Liu, Ni, Chen & Yang, 2011).
Applied in the case of Target, this creates a need to connect with the employees and to encourage the formation of positive workplace relationships between employees and managers. Employees today do not put in their sincere efforts unless they feel a connection and an association with the organization. This is only possible if the management ensures that the employees fully comprehend the mission and values of the organization. In addition, the management needs to give special consideration to the perception with which employees perceive the organization's growth and the manner in which their growth is a part of the same ...
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management
The concept of a comprehensive quality management was established on the basis of a wider quality management issues. It is one of several approaches quality management. Fundamentals and principles of TQM have evolved since the inception of the concept of quality and to this day the expansion and transformations are taking place. The idea of strategic quality management is one of the widest and most comprehensive of all qualitative approaches (Vidhu & Himanshu , n.d., pp. 2-8). Therefore, this paper is based on the evolution of strategic quality management, in which the 5 stage model will also be discussed in detail considering the importance of total quality management in business.
Importance of TQM
The significance of total quality management is mainly inherent in the strategic approach with which it is associated with the organization, therefore it’s essential characteristics that it has with the organization revolves around the implementation of TQM model in the organization.
In order to maintain competitive position in the market, organization needs to have satisfied customers. Eventually, the factor of satisfied customers either externally or internally becomes the driving force for the representation of quality efforts. As an outcome, organizations needs to recognize the prefences of the customers and the process of implementation process to combat those needs (Alessandro, 2011, pp. 9-89).
Managers at the higher level should act with extreme determination in order to establish higher quality as an essential value which is required to be incorporated in the administrative functions of the organization.
The concepst of qualiy should be clearly and fully integrated in all the activities of the organization.
Managers should ascertain a business environment that permit contribution of all employees in order to bring improvement in quality.
In order to be successful, total quality management systems , should be based on a systematic and continuous method of collection, evaluation and data management.
Providers should be fully associated to quality management. The close relationship between suppliers and producers is mutually beneficial.
Usefulness of 5-Stage Model Presented for Explaining Progress towards an Ideal Integration of TQM with Strategy Formulation
The importance and usefulness of the proposed model can be understood from the fact that total quality management and integration of strategy formulation has been evolutionary and rigorous. Through this model, it has been identified that evolution of integration is done through the same lines and progress at different levels. The level of progressions have been characterized in above mentioned five stages which are been marked collectively by advances (Calingo, 1996, pp.19–37). This model can eventually help in investigating the types of processes and strategies which can help in successfully driving organization from one stage to another.
Quality Management in Hospitality Industry
The concept of total quality management is considered very important in every industry and particularly in hospitality industry that covers a broad range of suppliers, guest and management. It is an approach which leads towards the path of recovery for the effectiveness, flexibility and competitiveness for the organization as a whole (Vidhu & Himanshu , ...
Management is a vast field that deals with getting the required personnel together in order to achieve desired aims and objectives, e.g. in business by deploying available resources in an optimized way to enhance productivity. With the passage of time, management has gained increasing significance, especially in businesses. It is a domain that comprises of a number of activities including planning, organization, staffing, directing, coordination, reporting and budgeting.
There are a number of theories that have been devised for the purpose of management. Two of such theories are the scientific management theory and human relations management theory, each of which will be discussed in the next section, accompanied by their comparison (Cole, 2004).
Scientific management is one of the significant and widely applied theories of management aimed at enhancing the management process. This theory was proposed by Fredrick Winslow Taylor who was one of the early practical manager theorists. The main idea behind this theory is to enhance the efficiency of the economy by improving the productivity of the labor. Taylor made use of scientific concepts in order to bring improvement to management. He analyzed different workers and found out that all the workers differ from others in talent, productivity and skills. Taylor analyzed the reason behind these differences and how these differences can be used to the benefit of the economy and the business. This theory puts forward the idea of optimization of labor processes in order to achieve the best out of it.
The other theory in discussion is the theory of human relations management. It is a theory that emphasizes on the behavior of the workers or employees in groups from social and psychological perspectives and their effects on the economy and business. This theory evolved as the result of a movement named human relations movement. The main advocates of this movement were W. E. Moore, E. Mayo and G. Friedmann (Henderson, 1996).
The theory of human relations management was put forward in response to the scientific management theory. Both the theories are somewhat contradicting to each other. The main difference between the two theories is that the scientific management theory emphasizes on increasing efficiency by the application of scientific methods to achieve optimized results. This theory encourages the workers by giving them financial rewards. Thus, this theory is science oriented to a great extent. On the other hand, human relations management emphasizes on rewarding the workers not only through financial rewards, but also through moral values such as appreciation, sense of belonging, and by making him take pride in his work. The distinguishing factor between the two is that scientific management theory considers the worker as rational economic man who is driven by incentives that are rewarded to him on completion of their tasks, while human relations management theory considers man as something above this, and emphasizes on considering the worker as a social man, not simply as a rational economic man. This theory puts forward the idea that the workers should be provided ...