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Assumptions about Human Nature
Assumptions about Human Nature
Human nature includes a number of different aspects of human personality, including the thinking process, feelings, actions towards others—all the characteristics that are inborn, and all the human beings seems to have them naturally. A number of questions are posed regarding the human nature and also regarding the difference between nature and nurture, and also answered by various authors in their own distinctive ways.
Almost all of the classical theorists have agreed that life led in accordance with nature is the best human life, and any measures to bring about changes might present devastating results.
Classical Theories of Human Nature:
Socrates presented the earliest of theory regarding human nature, and he believed that human nature is a product of the final and the formal causes. This implies that whatever human beings are, they are a product of their nature—the nature has caused them to be the way they are.
Against this firm and rigorous theory, there are theories of Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, presented in the middle of 19th century, which concentrate more on malleability and flexibility of human nature. These theorists believe that human nature is affected by the environment and the atmosphere, and thus the final outlook is a product of nature and nurture.
Aristotle is also an important figure in describing human nature. According to Aristotle, Socrates was the one who turned philosophy from being the study of heaven to study of nature of human beings. Socrates was a rationalist and believed that the ideal life for humans involves reasoning and that everything should be questioned, and answers must be presented to lead a perfect life (Noddings, 2006).
Aristotle and Plato, also worked in the same subject and presented some of the most widely accepted and authoritative statements about human nature, working more on the social side of human beings. Aristotle’s well known words sum up all his teachings: “Man is a social animal by nature; he cannot live without society and if he does so, then he is either beast or God”.
Analysis and Conclusion:
Different classical theories have been presented by individual scholars in all times, and all of them have their particular strong and weak points. However, human nature varies from one individual to the other and cannot be generalized. The theories that apply to one being might prove utterly wrong for the other, and so individual differences cannot be ignored. In general terms, human nature does act partly in accordance with the theories and proves them to be true. For instance, Aristotle’s theory of human being a social animal holds true for the majority of the human beings, while exceptions are always there. Similarly, Socrates’ theory of human nature life being the best when led according to nature holds true and observation shows that deviation from laws of nature, and especially human nature result in surfacing of problems and weighty issues.
Moreover, although human nature cannot specify or said to follow a definite pattern, whatever pattern it follows is somehow linked to the theories presented ...
CONCEPT OF NATURE
Concept of Nature
Concept of Nature
How would you define nature?
Nature is the living world, including plants, animals, fungi, and all micro-organisms, as well as naturally formed features of the landscape, such as mountains and rivers. Nature can refer to the phenomena of the physical world and life in general. Nature is, for example, the essence and the characteristic properties of each individual, available to all and everything that makes up the universe, virtue and quality of things and the natural force or activity, as opposed to something miraculous or supernatural.
The most common use of the term refers to all living things that are humans, animals, plants and phenomena that occur naturally, that is without action of man or artificial means such as rain or snowfall. In this sense, the planet Earth is home to nature. When the ecology talks about the protection of nature, is calling for the preservation of living organisms and ecosystems that make up the planet (Margulis and Dorian, 1995). The ecosystem concept can appoint a dynamic system with relative autonomy that consists of a natural community and its associated physical environment. Usually nature does not include man-made objects or human intervention, unless qualified in ways that refers to, for example with phrases like "human nature" or "the totality of nature." Nature is also distinguished from the supernatural (Margulis and Dorian, 1995). The ecosystem includes the interactions between organisms that form the community and the energy and material flows that run through it.
Nature is equivalent to the physical universe, natural world or the material world. Nature is the phenomena of the physical world and also to life. Usually does not include man-made objects or human intervention, unless qualified in ways that refers to, for example with phrases like “human nature” or “The totality of nature.”
Nature is also distinguished from the supernatural. It extends from the subatomic to the galactic. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe is a more recent acquired ever wider use in the development of the scientific method in recent centuries.
Was nature important to you as a child? Why or why not? Give examples.
Yes, the nature was important to me as a child, the reason of this statement is that the nature has various meanings. It refers to the essence or innate quality of a thing that which makes it what it is. An example of this would be human nature; the universal characteristics that are common to all people. The concept of nature has multiple meanings; it has different ideas about nature have shaped both ideas and theories about cities and attempts to redesign the physical spaces of urban life (Pidwirny, 2006). The concept of nature as a whole, the universe is physical, a more recent concept that acquired ever wider use in the development of scientific method in recent modern centuries. Nature is no longer understood by geographers as ontologically pure: rather, it tends to be conceived in terms of a set of hybrid relations between ...