Chemical Methods

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Alternative Way of Chemical Methods to Stop Plant Pathogens

Definition of Pathogens3

Chemical Methods to Stop Pathogens3

Symptoms of Bacterial Diseases4

Guarding the Gates: Pre-Existing Defenses6

Plant Resistance6

Plant Pathogens: Sneak Attack versus Brute Force7

Plant-Pathogen Interactions7

Nutrition Pathogens8

Specificity of Plant-Pathogen Interactions8

Mechanisms of Defense in Plant-Pathogen Interactions9

Plant Defense10

Defense Activation10

Alarm: Induced Defenses after Pathogen Recognition12

Surveillance and Detection of Microbial Pathogens14

Calling In Reinforcements16



Alternative Way of Chemical Methods to Stop Plant Pathogens

Definition of Pathogens

Pathogens are responsible for much of the decline in agricultural production in the tropics and its prevention is basically performed by various methods. Plants are also able to react and defend themselves by using a number of natural mechanisms. The in- plant-pathogen interactions can present various kinds of associations, which depend largely on the genetic content of each agency. The induced drag is a form of active protection involving differential gene expression and metabolic changes that occur as a result of an interaction between the plant and the pathogen (Albert, Macadam, and Kaldenhoff, 2006, pp.548-556).

Chemical Methods to Stop Pathogens

The level of production in tropical agriculture is due to various factors such as economic situations and social instability, even the quality of banana plasma, the environment and the high incidence of pests. In order to control this, there are two chemical methods, which have a cost both financially and environmentally. In the particular case of diseases affecting crops, bio-molecular can provide innovative instruments to investigate and understand the attributes that allow plants to defend and counter infections that are caused by pathogens. The understanding of these processes at the molecular level has design based alternatives to chemical control in the natural mechanisms that confer resistance or the pathogens. Relationships between plants and their pathogens, specifically that induced resistance includes recognition mechanisms and activation of the defense. The physiological aspects and molecular biology of plant defense with the purpose of evaluating such processes are sources to develop new control alternatives against pathogens (Broekaert,, and pp.297-323).

On the surface, plants mostly assumed as easy and simple targets. They do not possess a strong immune system. They are dependent on rain, wind, ultra-violet radiation, microbial pathogens and herbivores. Despite these challenges, plants actually possess a several effective strategies for defense which are efficient enough to prevent and overcome damages and infections (Dow, Newman, and Roepenack, 2000, pp.241-261).


Symptoms of Bacterial Diseases

Grennan (2006) studied that the symptoms of bacterial diseases are extremely varied, but generally characteristic to a particular pathogen. Symptoms can range from mosaics, seeming viral infections, and abnormalities such as large galls or distorted plant parts. The hormonal alteration can cause abnormal growths to roots, stems and flower structures and sometimes cause abnormal color of the flowers. The most common symptoms are the spots on leaves (Figure 2) or fruit (Figure 3), or tissue death blights on leaves, stems or trunks of trees, and roots or tubers (Figure 4) or other plant part. Wilts can also occur due to clogging of the vascular tissue (Figure 5). It is unimportant to continue the growth of the ...
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