The Republic of Indonesia, the island nation in Southeast Asia is ranked fourth in the world in terms of population. Indonesia stretches across thousands of islands stretching from a point opposite the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, and almost up to the ledge on the northern coast of Australia. The main ones Kalimantan, formerly. Borneo (with the exception of the northern part where the sultanate of Brunei and the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak), Sumatra, Irian Jaya (West o.Novaya Guinea), Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), Java and Madura, Nusa Tenggara ( Nusa Tenggara) and the Maluku Islands.
Indonesia consists of five rice terraces with hydraulic structures, an area of over 19 thousand 500 hectares. These facilities are the dominant element in the system of canals and dams, established back in the 9th century as the embodiment of collective management of water resources and carrying the name "Subak". In the landscape fits well as royal temple of Pura Taman Ayun, built in the 18th century and represents the largest and most impressive of landmarks on the island. "Subak" reflects the philosophy of "Tri Hita Karana", which brings together and examines the realm of the spirit, the world of humans and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchanges between Bali and India over the last two thousand years and has had a great influence on the landscape of Bali. The system "Subak", based on a democratic and equitable agriculture, let the people of Bali to get the most abundant crops of rice throughout the Indonesian archipelago, helping to overcome the problem of high population density.
Indonesia consist of approximately 300 ethnic and tribal groups, each with its own language, its own customs and its own social organization.
The most numerous are the Javanese, and their share in the population of the country is equal to 40-45%. Other major ethnic groups include the Sunda (Sundanese) from West Java, the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the Balinese from the island of Bali, Toba-Batak from the north-east of Sumatra and Aceh (Achin) to the north of that island. In addition, the are a lot of small nations to local habitats. Languages of the indigenous ethnic groups of the country are significantly different from each other, even though they all belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. The only exceptions are the Papuan languages spoken in Irian Jaya and other parts of eastern Indonesia. In 1945 was passed a single national language - Bahasa Indonesia. It is based on Malay, who at one time served as the main language of trade and communication between the inhabitants of the archipelago. Bahasa Indonesia language taught in all schools, it is on it and speak educated Indonesians living in urban areas. In the countryside, in the home or in a casual conversation with friends often use regional languages such as Javanese, Sundanese and madura.
To the cultural heritage of Indonesia include material objects, which have become tourist business cards of this country - for example, the ...