Nosocomial Infections

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[Nosocomial Infections]



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Factors Nosocomials that influence the manifestation of Nosocomial infections2

Microbial agent2

Vulnerability of patients3

Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures4

Environmental factors4

Bacterial resistance5

Bacterial multidrug resistance: a race against time6

1 in 20 is concerned7

Patients are not equal to risk8

A global issue, 1.4 million victims every day8

Three bacteria account for over half of the infections9


Predisposing components11

Potential wellbeing hazards11

Risk Factors12

Mode of transmission12

Type of Infection13


Specific nosocomial infection14


Future Prospects17




In the U.S. the proportion of hospital infections from 1975 to 1995 has increased by 36%, from 7.2 per 1000 to 9.8 per 1000 patients in 1995. Clinics in the U.S. buy 5 to 15% of hospital patients and 25-50% of patients in intensive care units a nosocomial infection. According to the Institute of Medicine in Washington are hospital infections, although preventable, responsible in the U.S. in the year for deaths 44000-98000. In the U.S., nosocomial infections cost per year cause 17 to 29 billion U.S. dollars. Between 1980 and 1992, died of "infection" in the U.S. has increased by 58%. To the number of deaths that occur as a result of nosocomial infection, yet there are few studies, mostly from the U.S. In these studies it was found that about 1% of these patients die directly or indirectly to it. 2.7% of all patients admitted to hospital infections are a contributing factor in a fatal outcome, are not the actual cause of death. (Anon 2001)

The first report of nosocomial infection dated from the late 50's, and emerged as a result of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections occurring in U.S. hospitals, although since the last century there was evidence of the relationship between hand washing and puerperal infections. During the next 15 years, the Entero-bacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms that predominated, however in recent years, the nosocomial flora has changed and there have been other agents such as Candida spp., Gram negative bacilli and viruses in addition to multidrug resistant organisms. The information in Mexico is low but for years the concern has arisen, first, to make a diagnosis of the real situation of the hospital and second to use this information for decision-making at local level. (Anon 2001) There are various reports about it, in tertiary hospitals and second level, where it has been estimated that the frequency of infections is about 10%, in these studies is the most common infection of the urinary tract, followed by post-surgical infections, pneumonia and bacteremia. In pediatric hospitals the most frequent nosocomial infection is pneumonia, followed by sepsis and bacteremia, urinary tract infections and ...
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