Runway Incursions are referred to any incidental happening at an aerodrome that includes the erroneous existence of an airliner or a being on the secluded zone of an area selected for the purpose of aircrafts landing and takeoff. There is a great jeopardy of acute collisions for the air vehicles on the land. Collisions may occur on the runway; when the vehicles are travelling moderately slowly, and off the runway as well; when the vehicles are travelling with a substantial velocity. The collisions occurring on the runway are however, more risky and may cause greater damage (R. Cassell, 2001).
Common scenarios of runway incursions
Runway incursions may be enlisted as in various inveterate scenarios.
An airplane or automobile passing by in way of a landing airplane;
An airplane or automobile passing by in way of a taking off airplane;
An airplane or automobile crossing the airstrip position mark;
An airplane or automobile doubtful of its location and accidentally getting into a busy runway;
A collapse in the infrastructure causing stoppage in following the air traffic control directions;
An airplane crossing behind an airplane or automobile which has not yet departed from the runway
Factual figures present that much of the runway incursions happen at day time in visual meteorological environment; nevertheless, majority of the misfortunes happen at night time when the visibility is very low. Thus, each runway invasion must be taken into account and examined, if there was or not the existence of a secondary airplane at the instant when the incident happened (Herald, A., 2010).
Types of Runway incursions
Airplane departing the runway entry, divergent to clearance
Airplane runway crossing after landing, defiant to clearance
Error in or misjudgment of runway possession clearance
Hauled airplane aircraft runway crossing, converse to clearance (William, R. & John, C., 2009).
Factors contributing to runway incursions
Breakdown in Communications
One of the most common factors contributing to the runway incursions is a collapse in the communication system that connects the traffic controllers to the pilots of the aircrafts (R. Cassell, 2002). This collapse includes;
Utility of non homogenous or irregular terminologies;
Stoppage of the aircraft pilot or driver of the automobile to impart an accurate response of a direction;
Failure of the aircraft controller in guaranteeing the conformation of the read-back communicated from the pilot of the airplane or the driver who have been delivered the clearance instructions;
Misunderstanding of the instructions communicated by the controller, by the airplane pilot or automobile driver;
Acceptance of the directions premeditated for some other vehicle or airliner, by a different vehicle or aircraft;
Complete and partial blockage of communications and transmissions;
Prolonged or intricate transmissions.
Pilot factors are those that are caused due to the collapse in the communication systems or due to the unavailability of conditional alertness. In such a situation, the pilots assume to be at a different location from the airport when they are actually at some other location. This may also include that they mistake the clearance instructions for entering into the runway when they were not meant for the ...