In 1913, John Broadus Watson establishes the basic principles of behaviorism (which he invented the name) by saying, in an article entitled Psychology as the behaviorist sees it that if psychology wants to be perceived as a natural. It makes the learning a central focus for the study of behavior that must be approached only in terms of measurable behaviors produced in response to environmental stimuli. This position of principle defended by Watson is what was later called radical behaviorism to differentiate it from other concepts.
Prominent theorist of strict behaviorism, BF Skinner (1904-1990) insisted that scientific methods can be learned from all human behaviors as it determines the objectively (the environment). Skinner rejected the notion of hidden mental processes, such as motives, goals, feelings, unconscious tendencies, etc. He argued that human behavior is almost entirely formed by its external environment. This position is sometimes called as environmentalism. "The black box of the human mind", according to Skinner, is excluded from empirical research, the efforts should be directed to the study of an open, accessible to direct observation human behavior and the establishment of the environmental factors that ultimately determine and control the actions of man (William, 1974).
Behaviorism is an approach in psychology that focus only on the behavior observed in order to characterize how it is determined by the environment and history of interactions between the individual and his environment, without using internal mechanisms. The root word comes from the English Behavior which means "behavior".
For example, the learning is described as an observable change in behavior due to changes in the force with which a response is associated with outside stimuli (external environment) or internal stimuli (internal environment) on the body. Skinner believed that the experimental analysis of behavior in animals (rats, pigeons) will open the principles of common behavior to humans and animals. Based upon the universal laws of behavior of the most important practical psychological, pedagogical task of education and training is being solved. By manipulating the variables of the environment (i.e. independent variables), we can predict and control the behavioral responses of the individual (dependent variables).
Skinner acknowledged the existence of two main types of behavior: respondent and operant. However, he believed that the main thing is operant behavior, i.e. spontaneous actions, for which there is an initial stimulus, verifiable recognition. Depending on the effects of a trend, ...