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Indigenous Australians, or Australian Aborigines, inhabited the countries for tens of thousands of former to the appearance of Europeans. They lived in hunter-gatherer groups over Australia, most of them nomadic or semi-nomadic. Once colonization started, numerous Aborigines died due to European infections, land decrease, and confrontations with settlers.

The Dutch explored components of Australia in the early 17th century, but most of it was left undisturbed by Europeans until 1770, when Captain James Cook took prescribed possession of the to the east seaboard area for Britain. On 26 January 1788, the British established a penal colony at Port Jackson, which became the town of Sydney. Other penal colonies were founded in what became Hobart and Brisbane. Therefore, numerous of Australia's early settlers were convicts or soldiers. Free towns were established in Melbourne, Adelaide, and Perth. With the breakthrough of gold in 1851, the number of free individuals immigrating to Australia increased rapidly. In 1868, the performance of transporting convicts to Australia ceased.

In 1901, the continent's six British colonies agreed to federate as the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia's traditional function as a trusted constituent of the domain, established by supplying armies for British confrontations for example the Boer Wars and World Wars I and II, eventually evolved into a more unaligned Australian identity. For demonstration, Australian troops' rough knowledge during a World War I crusade in Gallipoli, Turkey, helped conceive an Australian national consciousness. This transformation of persona has arrived to be renowned as the ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) tradition. (McElrath 2002)

The second half of the 20th century conveyed a transformation in the ethnic makeup of Australia. At the end of World War II in 1945, Australians were nearly entirely of Anglo-Celtic descent, with 90 percent born in Australia. During the 1950s and 60s, a large influx of immigrants from Greece, Italy, and other European nations started to form a more multicultural society. Significant Asian migration started in the 1970s. Today, nearly 25 percent of Australians were born overseas, and 40 percent are immigrants or young children of immigrants.

Beginning in the 1960s, a sequence of restructures addressed matters facing Australian Aborigines. In 1962, Aborigines received national voting privileges, and in 1970, the government ended a longstanding assimilation principle, which had forcibly removed Aboriginal young children from their parents. These young children came to be renowned as the “stolen generations.” Australia's High Court ruled in 2002 that Aborigines possessed Australia former to the appearance of Europeans, rejecting a principle that the countries had been empty. The decision opened the way for legislation that allowed Aborigines to press land claims. Controversy still surrounds the history of relations between Australian Aborigines and Europeans, but Aboriginal heritage is increasingly recognized as an integral part of Australia's national heritage. In a historic talk in February 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd issued a prescribed apology for the past mistreatment of Aboriginal persons, particularly the thieved generations, representing the Australian government. In June 2010, Australia elected its first feminine major minister, Julia Eileen ...
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