Blood Results

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Blood Results

Blood Results

In this cohort of adult men, with a relatively young age, we observed that the blood pressure increased with higher BMI, WC, and various skin fold locations. The relation was linear and no threshold was noted. Multivariate analysis identified that only age and WC were significantly associated with the presence of hypertension. Another important finding was the elevated prevalence of overweightness and hypertension. There is a large variation in overweightness/obesity prevalence in Brazil, mainly due to its regional inequalities, ranging from 15 to 54%, 12-14 and our population presented one of the highest levels. The “metabolic syndrome” diagnostic criteria include both elevated blood pressure and WC above 102 cm, an association that seems to be frequent in the over weighted strata.

This association occurred for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Benetou et al. identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition population that below 55 years of age both anthropometric measures behaved in a similar fashion, but for those beyond that age, WC was a better marker for men and BMI for women, a feature we were unable to explore due to the characteristics of our population.

In our population a positive association could not be demonstrated with respect to waist-to-hip ratio, as previously reported in some studies, but not all. This may be explained by the fact that our population consisted only of men, and some previously published studies did not analyze the influence of waist-to-hip ratio by gender. Also, hip measurements include not only fat tissue but muscle and bones, that can present distinct proportions due to the physical activity involved or aging. In fact, a large hip circumference has been associated with overall health and longevity. Among skin folds, sub scapular thickness presented a very good positive association with blood pressure measurements.

This association has previously been described in an Italian male population, and our results are similar. It probably reflects the amount of fat tissue centrally located (James, 2008, pp. 352). On the other hand, studies that used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring failed to demonstrate such association and is a matter for further research. In the multivariate analysis, no skin fold was identified as an independent predictor of hypertension. WC was the only independent predictor of hypertension in our population besides age. Age is well recognized as related to hypertension. In our sample age distribution was narrow, and may explain its small influence. Some previous studies showed that WC had the strongest association with blood pressure, but only specific and homogeneous populations were evaluated, like lean Asians, white Americans, or Europeans.

The Brazilian population is highly heterogeneous in its genetic composition due to a long history of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers, African slaves and Native Americans. Also, regional inequalities, especially economic, are extreme. In Brazil, parts of the country present a per capita income close to developed countries and others equal to some underdeveloped nations. This latter factor may influence the food pattern of the ...
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