Cardio-Respiratory System

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Cardio-Respiratory System

Cardio-Respiratory System


The paper discusses the cardio respiratory system in a holistic context. The cardio-respiratory system is one that maintains blood flow and exchange of matter with the exterior, implying a good development of both metabolic and homeostatic.

Cardio-respiratory System

The cardio-respiratory system is composed of the cardiovascular system, heart, blood and blood vessels, and respiratory system and lungs.

The structure of the respiratory system

The respiratory system consists mainly of two major sections:

Respiratory system

The airways

The airways are a set of organs (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi) that carry air into the lungs. Are coated on the inside by a layer of epithelial tissue (composed of cells very close together, they just have them between intercellular substance, which protects the body from injury and infection) and respiratory mucosa (West 2008, 1).

The apparatus pulmonary

This is where gas exchange is performed between ambient air and blood. Because the gaseous nature of its contents, the airways are covered by a bony or cartilaginous framework that makes it possible to keep these roads open so air can circulate freely (West 2008, 1).

The mechanism of the breathing gas exchange

The respiratory system allows gas exchange between the blood veins and atmospheric air supplying blood to the oxygen the body needs and expelling waste gases of activity such as CO 2 (carbon dioxide). Breathing corresponds to two mechanisms: the inspiration that provides oxygen to the body and expiration, which eliminates CO 2.

The term respiration also another meaning when it corresponds to the oxidative chemical reactions within the cells of the body: it is cellular respiration (it corresponds to the consumption of oxygen at the cellular level to process glucose or lipids, producing CO 2. which is a waste of degradation) (West 2008, 1).

The regulation of breathing

Usually people do not notice how he breathes, because this process is regulated independently of his will. Involuntary regulation of breathing exercises the respiratory center, located in the medulla (a department of the hindbrain). The ventral (lower) part of the respiratory center is responsible for the stimulation of breath; her breath is called the center (inspnra-reflex center) (West 2008, 1).

The respiratory center is connected with the intercostal muscle intercostal nerves and the diaphragm - diaphragmatic. Bronchial tree (the set of the bronchi and bronchioles) is innervated by the vagus nerve. Rhythmically repetitive nerve impulses are bound to the diaphragm and intercostals muscles to ensure the implementation of air movement.

Expansion of the lungs during breathing stimulates the bronchial tree located in the stretch receptors (proprioceptors), and they send through the vagus nerve, more and more momentum in the expiratory center. It's time to suppress the inspiratory center and breathe. External intercostals muscles are now relaxed, stretched elastically reduced lung tissue - is an exhalation. After the expiration stretch receptors in the bronchial tree is no longer subject to a stimulus. Therefore, expiratory center is turned off and can start breathing again (West 2008, 1).

Disorders of the respiratory system

The most common disorders of the respiratory system are given below:


Body's natural reaction ...
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