Bruce Carpenter is the football player, and he suffers from a knee injury during a match. He felt acute pain. Currently, he is jobless due to this injury. He is quiet worry about the expenses of the home because he is unable to walk properly, even could not stand for a long time and that why he needs proper rest. He is unable to earn money by playing or by working because of his crucial knee condition. With the current financial downturn, his bank is currently considering redundancies, and losing his job would be a disaster as his finances are tight. The pain associated with Osteoarthritis develops gradually, although sudden onset is also possible. The joint may become stiff and swollen, making it difficult to bend or straighten the knee. Pain and swelling are worse in the morning or after a period of inactivity (Rutjes 2009, p.63). The pain may also increase after activities such as walking, climbing the stairs or kneeling. Often the pain can cause a feeling of weakness in the knee, resulting in immobilized or fall. Environmental changes (cold or humidity) also affect the degree of pain of Osteoarthritis.
The major symptoms that Bruce Carpenter is facing redness on the skin along with the warmth and swelling in his knee. He feels uncomfortable while moves his body active and passive. Bruce also facing agonizing pain range extension reproduces a sharp and localised pain along the line of the medial collateral ligament. The sign and symptoms of Bruce case show that he is suffering from Osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis (also known as OA, its acronym in English) is the most common form of arthritis of the knee. OA is usually a slowly progressive degenerative disease that gradually wears down the cartilage in the joint. Often affects people of middle age and older sports men. The patho-physiological process in this case, based on assess of nature and severity of pain (Reichenbach et.al 2007, p.580). The pathophysiological process based on measuring the amount of joint movement. Bruce need to take a radiograph of the knee joint space narrowing is a good indicator of Osteoarthritis. Bone spurs can also be seen on a radiograph. In Bruce case, he must need a scanner. This allows the clinician to see if changes occurred in the soft tissues inside the joint.
In Bruce case, he may require a blood sample to rule out other types of Osteoarthritis. The doctor will perform a physical examination that focusing on his departure, range of motion in the limb, and tenderness or swelling of the joint. X-rays typically show a loss of space in the affected knee joint. Blood and other special tests such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (also known as MRI, its acronym in English) may be necessary to make the diagnosis.
Psychological and Social Factors
There is a significant association between psychological factors and disease, not a recent event or concern that has arisen in modern ...