Causal Analysis: The Yellow Wallpaper

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Causal analysis: The Yellow Wallpaper


In the story The Yellow Wallpaper, the character suffers from a breakdown. The breakdown is similar to Post Traumatic Disorder as the symptoms are quite the same. Research work has been done on PTSD and its symptoms. A study by Weiner et al (2011) discusses brain abnormalities in Gulf War syndrome: evaluation with I HMR spectroscopy. The study suggested that individuals with Gulf War Illness (GWI) had reduced quantities of the neuronal marker N- Acetylaspartate (NAA) in the basal ganglia and pons. This study aimed to determine whether NAA is reduced in these regions and to investigate correlations with other possible causes of GWI, such as psychological response to stress in a large cohort of Gulf War veterans. Individuals underwent tests to determine their physical and psychological health and to identify veterans with (n = 81) and without (n = 97) GWI. When concentrations of NAA and ratios of NAA to creatine and choline containing metabolites were measured in the basal ganglia and pons, no significant differences were found between veterans with or without GWI, suggesting that GWI is not associated with reduced NAA in these regions. Veterans with GWI had significantly higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, supporting the idea that GWI symptoms are stress related.


In another study, they have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed a total of 400 orphaned or widowed survivors of the Rwandan genocide. The syndromes were strongly linked to each other with a high co- morbidity. Principal axis factoring resulted in the emergence of 4 different factors. The symptoms of depression, along with the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of PGD, loaded on the first factor, symptoms of anxiety on the second factor, symptoms of PTSD on the third factor, and the separation distress symptoms of PGD on the fourth factor. This indicates that the concept of PGD includes symptoms that are conceptually related to depression. However, the symptom cluster of separation distress presents a grief-specific dimension that may surface unrelated to depressive symptoms.

A study by Erbes et al (2011) is about relationship adjustment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed across two time points in a sample of 313 married or partnered National Guard soldiers recently returned from combat duty in Iraq. Structural equation modeling using a four-factor model for PTSD found the latent variable dysphoria (reflecting generalized distress including aspects of emotional numbing and arousal) had the strongest independent contribution to predicting relationship adjustment at Time I and indirectly predicted poorer relationship adjustment at Time 2. Exploratory analysis of gender differences (n = 33 women; n = 280 men) suggested a different pattern of relations between PTSD factors and relationship adjustment among female soldiers at Time 1, with a trend toward trauma specific avoidance being more highly related to relationship ...