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Cell Structure, Function and Theory


In this paper, we try to explore the concept of cell structure, theory and their functions. The basic unit of structure and functioning of all living organisms (except viruses, which are often referred to as non-cellular life forms), which has its own metabolism, capable of independent existence, self-reproduction and development. All living organisms or as multicellular animals, plants and fungi, are composed of many cells or how many protozoa and bacteria, are unicellular organisms

Cell Structure, Function and Theory

The unit cell is the anatomical, functional and genetics of living organisms. The cell is a structure consisting of three basic elements: plasma membrane, cytoplasm and genetic material (DNA). It has the ability to perform three vital functions: nutrition, relationships and reproduction (Alberts, 2002).Cell Function and Theory

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

It's called eukaryotic cells have genetic information wrapped in a membrane forming the so-called core. A body made up of eukaryotic cells called eukaryotes. Many single-celled organisms have the genetic information scattered throughout the cytoplasm, no nucleus. In this cell type is given the name of prokaryotes.

Diagram of a cell membrane

Outline of a plant cell

Outline of an animal cell

The Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is the cell space between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. It consists of the cytosol, the cytoskeleton and cellular organelles. The cytosol (also called hyaloplasm) is the internal environment of the cytoplasm. It consists of 85% water with a high content of substances dispersed colloidal form in it (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and nucleotides as well as dissolved salts.

Features include the performance, thanks to the ribosomes and the synthesis protein, with amino acids dissolved in the cytosol. These proteins are in the cytosol (enzymes, proteins or protein energy reserves that will form the cytoskeleton). It produces an enormous amount of important metabolic reactions: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, lactic fermentation and so on (Lodish, 2004).

The cytoskeleton appears in all eukaryotic cells. The chemical composition is a network of protein fibers (microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules). Its functions are to maintain cell shape, form pseudopodia, muscle fibers contract, carry and organize cellular organelles.


Cell nucleus.



Rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Golgi apparatus.


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.





An Outline of a Cell


Nuclear Pore

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)

Ribosome on the RER.

Proteins that are transported.

Gall conveyor. Golgi apparatus (GA).

AG cistern.

Transmembrane AG.

Cistern AG.

Secretory ...
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