Normal and Abnormal Growth of the Child and the Adolescent
Normal growth of a human being depends on genetic and environmental factors. If, genetic information is appropriate and conducive environment would be the optimal conditions for growth and development according to the genetic potential family. The environment is ripe when it provides adequate nutrition in quantity and quality and appropriate stimulation and emotional psycho-sensory (Steinberg, 2009). The genetic potential of growth is expressed fully when there is also a good health and normal physical activity.
Child and Adolescent Development is the biological and psychological alterations, that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
Normal growth implies an increase in body size by growth in length of bones also accompanied by changes in muscle tissue, fat, red blood cells and size of organs, especially during puberty.
a) Cell Growth and Development
Growth occurs by multiplication (hyperplasia) and increased cell size (hypertrophy). During, growth periods are only cell hyperplasia, which correspond to periods of faster growth. These periods are critical, since what left to buy for them cannot be retrieved later. If, during this period, a noxa acts to slow the rate of cellular hyperplasia, it can leave eternal sequel. In the case, of severe protein energy malnutrition of Marasmus, which occurs during the first year of life, leaving a shorter which explains the smaller size of individuals in underdeveloped countries, where malnutrition is prevalent (Repetti & Seeman, 2008).
b) Fetal Growth
The growth of the fetus during pregnancy is especially dependent on maternal factors such as nutritional status with the mother facing the pregnancy, the rise of weight during pregnancy, maternal health status and functioning of the fetus and placenta. After birth, the growth relates more genetic factors, correlating better with the size of the parents. The growth rate during the first 2 years of life and puberty correlated with the size of their parents; children of short parents grow less and parents grow more high than usual at this age. There are many causes of poor fetal growth in the uterus which may depend on the mother, fetal or placental.
The postnatal growth of young children for gestational age depends on the etiology of the delay. It is observed that some of these children have a catching up (for maternal hypertension); others maintain it, while others intensify during postnatal life (fetal alcohol syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome, some chromosome alterations) (Maccoby, 2010).
c) Postnatal Growth Rate
The child in the first year of life presents an extraordinarily rapid growth (23 to 25 cm), increasing its size by 50%. In, the second year and then grows 12 cm in a relatively constant 6 cm per year, finally present the latest period of rapid growth during puberty. Male puberty lasts for about 4 years and a half during the first 2 ½ years is growing rapidly, and the next 2 does so more slowly. Throughout this period, the male grows about 25 ...