Congruence Model

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Congruence Model

Congruence Model

This paper is based on a case study, involving Excellent Consulting Group. In this paper, the concepts of organizational diagnosis and congruence are discussed with respect to Nadler and Tushman's Congruence Model, being applied in the organization, (Excellent Consulting Group in this case).

Organizational Diagnosis

The organizational diagnosis and cultural development model is represented by the work of Tushman and Nadler. In this model organizational leaders assess the fit between such elements as organizational structure, nature of the technology, composition of the workforce, communication systems, and organizational policies and procedures (Tushman, 2007). The key to successful change management under this model is to identify incongruities and points of tension between aspects of organization design (Excellent Consulting Group in this case).

Those incongruities can emerge either as internal conflicts that will impede successful adaptation or as conflicts between the current state of alignment and the changes required from the external environment (Nadler, Tushman, 2008).

There are two fundamental processes underlying PO fit. First, there is the concept of need fulfillment. As in other theories of person-environment (PE) fit, psychological need fulfillment represents a complementary perspective on fit, in which fit is determined by the extent to which the person's needs are met by the organizational environment or the organization's needs are met by the capabilities of the individual. Theories of need fulfillment suggest that dissatisfaction results when needs go unmet, and may also be the consequence of over fulfillment, depending on the need.

The second theoretical tradition in PO fit research is the concept of I/O congruence, a supplementary approach to fit (Chatman, 2006). Theoretically, congruence affects attitudes and behaviors because people are more attracted to similar others. Similarity facilitates communication, validates choices, and socially reinforces personal identities. Taken together, these mechanisms provide alternative, but not competing, explanations for why PO fit influences individual outcomes at work.

Diagnostic Models

Diagnostic models typically involve a series of steps that ultimately get to the root cause of a problem. Although there are several common models for analyzing performance in the workplace, including (Cable, 2008) process mapping system, arguably the most well known is A. C. Daniels's ABC analysis model, which capitalizes on changing components of the three-term contingency. When a problem behavior is occurring or a desired behavior is not occurring, A. C. Daniels (1989) suggested that managers or consultants can use the following steps to alleviate the problem:

Describe the undesired behavior and who is currently doing ...
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