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In this research paper there is a discussion about cryptography and all the things related to cryptography. There is a strong discussion between conventional cryptography and public key cryptography. The paper also shows the comparison between private key cryptography and public key cryptography. The paper just shows the basics of Cryptography and there is not such strong discussion on any architecture and infrastructure related to cryptography.






Conventional Cryptography5

Limitations of Conventional cryptography6

Public Key Cryptography6


Risks associated with Public Key cryptography8

Digital Certificates9




Cryptography is the science which uses mathematics in order to encrypt and decrypt data. It allows us to store data and information which can be sensitive, and transfers the information to the internet, which is the insecure network, and it is not easily read by anyone except the intended recipient. There are two types of Cryptography which can stop our family members like brothers and sister to read our files and Cryptography which stop major governments to read our files. Technology is advancing every day. Each day brings new ideas, revolutions and inventions. Today, no house and organization, is without computer. Information Technology is playing a vital role in reshaping lives. Cryptography can be strong and weak depending upon the time and resources. In short, Cryptography is the strong function of mathematics which can be used in encryption and decryption process. Cryptography functions with a combination of key, word number and phrase in order to encrypt the plaintext. The similar plaintexts can also encrypt the cipher text with distinct keys.



Billions of computers are doing billions of work today and it is impossible to decipher the results of strong Cryptography before the end of world. The security is the main concern in Cryptography and Information Technology. Technology is advancing every day. Each day bring new ideas, revolutions and inventions. There are also certain risks associated with Cryptography. These risks are running side by side with the benefits and sometimes create hazards. These risks should be identified at very first stage otherwise these risks may create troubles. When technology develops, and advances there are also problems associated with the advancement. There are many hackers and intruders around us. We do not want others to get access into our systems and read our emails. Sometimes, these hackers send email from our personal computers to other systems. This process is “Email spoofing”. When computers are without security, they are open for hackers, and crackers, as well. They are always trying to search new things and ideas in order to hack Personal computers, as well as, high command systems such as government officials' PCs. Connecting to the internet tends to invite a lot of risks. When any individual or official connect to the internet that means it has connected with a large number of network. In cloud computing, millions of users are connected with several servers, and there are many risks of hacking and cracking. A hacker can easily access into our cloud and can get useful information, which may result in a ...
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