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Table of Contents



Hidden Malware: Trojans, Backdoors and Rootkits5


Root kits5

Malware and anti-virus programs6

Packing and encryption code6

Mutation of the code7

Cryptography for securing networks7

Cryptographic Privacy System8



Cryptography and Malware


Although some characteristics of the Internet have emerged as a thing that can be easily exploited (dematerialization information, real time, abolition of borders), however, a technical feature of the internet creates issues relative to the protection of personal data. Unlike the personal computer of yesterday that had a transparent device (screen / printer), the computer of today is equipped with a modem, or a network card that never cheats on the information that is received by the card through the network or information that is sent through it. Moreover, the novice user has little control over the programs that work really on his computer. Many programs are running on his PC, without his knowledge, right from the point when he starts his machine and anyone can have direct access to through the network to his computer, without leaving a trace. In the recent years, the marketing firms have made use of this feature on the Internet because of the technical characteristic of invisibility and lack of transparencies. This allows them to go for profiling of each individual user on the internet, in real time and even across the borders. In this report, we would try to give a brief overview of the methods that can be used to counter this problem. To counter this problem, there are a number of technologies available in the market. The first and the most famous are to use encryption solutions. The second is to adapt to the existing technologies to the requirements of the protection of privacy.


Malware, also called bad-ware, is a type of software that aims to infiltrate or damage a computer without the owner's consent. The term malware is widely used by professionals in the field of computer science to refer to a variety of software that is hostile, intrusive, or annoying. The term computer virus is often incorrectly used to refer to all types of malware, including real virus. (Miller, Vandome and McBrewster, 2009)

Software is considered malware based on the creator's intentions. The term malware includes viruses, worms, Trojan horses, most root kits, spyware, adware intrusive, crime ware, and other malicious and unwanted software. Malware is not the same as defective software; the latter contains bugs that are dangerous but are not sent intentionally.

According to Panda Security, in the early months of 2011 there have been around 73,000 new computer threats, which is 10,000 more than the average for the year 2010. Of these threats, around 70% were Trojan horses.

The term computer virus is used to describe a program that when executed, it spreads by infecting other executable software within the same computer. The virus may also have a payload to perform other malicious actions often, for example, delete some files in the computer. Moreover, a worm is a program that transmits itself by exploiting vulnerabilities in a computer network to infect other ...
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