Ethiopian, one of the post-1965 groups of immigrants from less developed countries, may differ from pre-1965 European immigrants in their assimilation pattern. This paper explores applicable assimilation models to Ethiopian immigrants by reviewing the literature on Ethiopian immigrants and analysing the PUMS data. It finds that, compared to other immigrants, Ethiopian immigrants' high level of human capital does not translate into equivalent level of socio-economic well-being in the U.S. Findings from the analysis suggest that race is an important individual and structural variable in the socio-economic location of Ethiopian immigrants in the U.S. Segmented assimilation theory may offer the flexibility and fit needed for Ethiopian immigrants. However, the data shows some support for the applicability of the classic assimilation theory to the average immigrant. Socio-economic well-being is highest for oldest cohorts and lowest for most recent cohorts.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION1
Background of the Research1
Statement Of Purpose4
Goals And Objectives Of Research5
Significance of the Study9
CHAPTER 02: LITERATURE REVIEW15
Ethiopianism and Ethiopian Ideology15
Ethiopian Immigrants in America ethnicity, gender and absorption19
Social Change and Constructions of Space: `pure' and `impure' space27
CHAPTER 03: METHODOLOGY34
Data and Method35
CHAPTER 04: DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS40
Descriptive and Comparative Data by Immigrant Groups, Human Capital Indicators, English ability40
Socio-economic Well-being Indicators44
The First Ethiopians In America48
Significant Immigration Waves48
Acculturation and Assimilation50
Family And Community Dynamics54
The Role Of Women55
Interactions With Other Ethnic Groups57
Employment And Economic Traditions59
Politics and Government60
Relations with Ethiopia60
Gender Relations in Transition62
CHAPTER 05: CONCLUSION66
CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION
The increasing diversity of recent immigrants and their dissimilarity to earlier European immigrants to the US, suggests a need for re-evaluating the classic assimilation theory. Several theories and models have been suggested. Classic assimilation theory proposes that immigrant groups become increasingly like the native-born or majority group over time as they experience educational and economic opportunities that results in socio-economic advancement. The theory, though fitting to earlier Ethiopian immigrants, does not explain the diversity in patterns and outcomes of more recent immigrants (Dodoo, 2002, 13). Changes in U.S. immigration laws in 1965 abolished national quota system and eased immigration prospects for non-Europeans.
Background of the Research
Theorising and research on racial/ethnic identity continues to expand. New models reflect the growing recognition of the complexity of racial/ethnic identity and the increased diversity of our society. One example is the development of a theory to address the ethnic identity of Ethiopian immigrants, taking into account their status as African immigrants in the United States (Dodoo, 1997, 27).
African immigrants to the United States have contributed greatly to their communities of settlement with African churches and mosques; Ethiopian, Senegalese, and other African restaurants; African hair braiding salons; taxi drivers or nursing home care providers who might be Somalian, Liberian, Eritrean, or Sierra Leonian; medical doctors from Nigeria and other African nations; and African professors and teachers from many different countries. Many African-born residents in the United States are urbanised, and they have one of the highest education levels of any immigrant group.
Models and measurement strategies are less linear and more complex and multifaceted. Increased attention has been paid to the development of psychometrically sound ...