Dental Surgery

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Dental Surgery: Clinical Analysis

Dental Surgery: Clinical Analysis

Observation 1: Broken Lower Denture

In the first observation, a 55 year old has come to emergency with a broken lower denture. A broken (fractured) jaw results from a strong direct force that causes the lower, movable jawbone (mandible) or upper, immovable jawbones (maxilla) to break.

The mandible holds the lower teeth and is the only movable bone in the face. The maxilla holds the upper teeth and extends up to the eyes. The mandible is connected to the skull by a hinged joint located in front of the ears (temporomandibular joint). Strong muscles help attach the jaw to the skull.

Again, a thorough physical examination to rule out concomitant injuries is important. Physical examination begins with inspection of the face from all angles for asymmetry, open wounds, and foreign bodies. The entire mandible (including the condyle near the ear) is examined gently with the fingers (palpated) for any areas of tenderness, swelling, or discontinuity (“step-off”). The mouth is inspected for bleeding, edema, or ecchymosis. Teeth are checked for stability, bleeding at the gumline, and malocclusion.

Observation 2: Amalgam Paste

To prepare dental amalgams, a powdered alloy consisting mainly of silver and tin is mixed with liquid mercury. The powder may be produced either by lathe cutting or by milling a cast ingot of the silver-tin alloy. The resulting particles are irregular in shape. Alternatively, the liquid alloy may be atomised and allowed to condense, a process which results in particles having an essentially spherical morphology.

Immediately prior to mixing, the thin membrane that separates the alloy powder from the liquid mercury is broken, and the capsule inserted into the arm of the mechanical mixer and vibrated for the required length of time, typically 30 seconds, to bring about thorough mixing of powder and liquid. The freshly mixed amalgam, which has a plastic consistency, is then extruded from the capsule and into the cavity. During the process of trituration, the surface layer of the silver-tin alloy dissolves in the liquid mercury, and there is a reaction that leads to the formation of new phases. These new phases are solid, and their formation causes the plastic amalgam paste to solidify.

3rd Observation: Anterior Bridge Surgery

A conventional three-unit bridge is used to replace missing teeth when there are teeth on either side of the space. There are three parts to a three-unit bridge. The middle part, called the pontic, replaces the missing teeth. On either side, the pontic is attached to the abutments. These abutments are hollow, tooth-shaped crowns that fit over the adjacent teeth to hold the bridge in place.

Expectations of the purpose of each appointment

Dental surgeons are those members of the oral health care team who support the other members of the oral health care team across all different types of dental treatment. Dental health emcompasses care of the teeth, jaws, soft structures of tongue, lips and oral mucosa (the soft pink covering inside the mouth). Teeth are made up of four types of tissue—enamel, dentin, ...
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