Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes Mellitus

Student Name

Med 2056 Endocrine System, FTO

Ms. Earixson-Lamothe

May 17, 2011

Diabetes Mellitus

1. Discuss the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

. In 1979 the American Diabetes Association (ADA) published a classification of diabetes. Since the etiology of this disease is poorly understood, it is classified according to their treatment. The two main types are Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and type II or non insulin-dependent (NIDDM). In type II diabetes, there are 2 main aspects related to insulin: insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. The insulin resistance is the decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin. Normally, insulin binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces appears as a series of reactions in the metabolism of glucose into the cell. The resistance is associated with intracellular depletion of these reactions, so that the insulin becomes less effective in stimulating glucose uptake by tissues. To overcome the insulin resistance and prevent the gradual formation of blood glucose, increase the amount of insulin secreted.

In people with IGT, this is due to excessive secretion of insulin; the glucose level is normal or slightly elevated. However, if beta cells are unable to continue with the increasing demand for insulin, leukemia develops rises and type II diabetes. Type II diabetes is more common in obese older than 30 years of age due to the slow progressive intolerance (for years) to glucose, the onset of type II diabetes, may go unnoticed for many years. If you experience symptoms usually are mild and include fatigue, irritability, polyuria, polydipsia and skin wounds that heal poorly, vaginal infections or blurred vision (if the blood sugar is too high). In most patients (about 75%), type II diabetes is discovered incidentally when systemic laboratory testing.

2. Compare and contrast the possible causes of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Type 1 causes

Type 1 causes Causes of Type 1 diabetes: this type of diabetes is a disease called "autoimmune". For reasons that remain unknown, the person produces antibodies which have the character to attack its own pancreas cells, specifically those that produce insulin. The result is the destruction of islet cells which produces insulin. When 90% of the islets are destroyed, diabetes appears. There is a particular genetic background, but the role of heredity is not decisive: in 90% of new cases, we do not find any history of type 1 diabetes in the family and the risk of becoming diabetic if a parent is reached does not exceed 2-3%. This means that environmental factors, infectious, nutritional and psychological, without being specific cause, play an important role in triggering the autoimmune disease if the person is genetically predisposed.

Type 2 causes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not respond to insulin properly. This condition is called "insulin resistance" (a decrease in insulin sensitivity).

Unlike people with diabetes mellitus type 1, in people with diabetes mellitus type-2 insulin continues to produce (sometimes produced in quantities exceeding the physiological), but loses its ability to react with cells of the body and facilitate the uptake of ...
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