Homocysteine is an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine, essential amino acid that enters our body provided by the dietary protein. Normally homocysteine is rapidly metabolized by enzymes, which keep it out of circulation. In populations with low plasma levels of vitamin B6, B12 and folate, and homocysteine levels arterioslerótica disease incidence is high.
Some patients have a genetic disorder called "homocystinuria" caused by a key enzyme deficiency. In these patients, homocysteine is present in the blood in excessive amounts and are excreted in urine. They perform a fibrotic process in the arteries, literally produce "hardened arteries", clinically manifested by advanced arteriosclerosis (DeLoughery 2004, pp. 1).
Homocysteine ??is now recognized as a new independent risk factor for atherothrombosis. High grades of homocysteine ??in the body-fluid can impairment the coating of the arteries. It is furthermore likely that high homocysteine ??levels make the body-fluid clot more effortlessly than it should. This may boost the risk of clogging the body-fluid vessels. A clot inside the body-fluid vessel is called a thrombus. A thrombus can journey through the bloodstream and get attached in the lungs (called pulmonary embolism), mind (which can lead to stroke) or heart (which can origin a heart attack). People with very high grades of homocysteine ??are at expanded risk for coronary artery disease (Sachdev 2004, pp. 25).
Homocysteine ??is formed in the body (in the food it is not contained) in the metabolism of the essential amino acid methionine. They are rich in animal products, especially meat, dairy products (especially cheese), eggs. Homocysteine ??in the plasma is mainly associated with proteins form. Total plasma homocysteine ??is the sum of free and bound homocysteine. Most of it is subjected to reverse methylation to form methionisne. Alternatively, it may be subjected to irreversible conversion to cysteine ...