Dissertation Methodology

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the community integration in Traumatic brain injury. The methodology used is to be based on literature review.


Literature was retrieved through electronic searches of PubMed, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cochrane Library using the following keywords and headings: community integration, community re-integration, community re-entry, participation, Community Integration Questionnaire, CIQ, Craig Handicap Assessment Rating Techniques, CHART, the Community Integration Measure, CIM, and brain injuries. Other limits on the searches included adults 19 years of age or older, and publication from 1990 to September 25, 2003 since it was in the early 1990s that the two most prominent CI measures were published. Manual searches of prominent rehabilitation journals for 2003 to date were performed. Additionally, web-based searches of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the traumatic brain injury model systems (TBIMS) publications were conducted. A total of 145 publications were identified. References were then examined and duplications among databases were eliminated.

To date, a considerable number of studies have been conducted examining the efficacy of rehabilitation programmes designed to assist those recovering from TBl. However, large-scale reviews of these studies have identified several methodological and practical limitations of many of these outcome evaluation studies. (Teasdale 2008: 13-6) The goal of this study, therefore, was find out different aspects of community integration and the influence of culture. Furthermore, the practical limitations were addressed by using the CIQ as an outcome measure that assesses three aspects of everyday functioning: home, social and work involvement. (Dijkers 2007:65-74)

That all those affected by TBI, including traditionally underserved populations, have access to information, resources, and services that maximize participation in their communities and that treating professionals have the necessary information to meet the needs of persons with TBI. (Zafonte 2006:456-61)

Successful integration should be viewed as active participation in a broad range of community involvements. It should not be viewed as a narrow series of opportunities, such as employment or independent living. (Waxman 2009: 1237-43)

Inclusion Criteria

Previous experimental work has been done to understand and improve software review and inspection procedures with respect to defect detection. Inspections have been shown to be an effective tool for defect detection in software artifacts. It has been reported that inspections can help find between 60 and 90 percent of the defects present in software artifacts. But, studies often report a large variation between the performance of the least effective inspector and the performance of the most effective inspector. (Hamilton 2008)

Human subjects

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

English language

Exclusion Criteria

Results of the electronic searches were supplemented by recommendations of peers and by reading reference lists of included studies. A second search was conducted from 2004 through April 2006 to capture any relevant Class I or II literature (see "Rating Scheme for the Strength of the Evidence") that might have been published since the first literature search in 2004. Relevant publications were added to those from the original search, constituting the final library of studies that were used as evidence in this ...
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