Educational Leadership

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Educational Leadership and Management Models

Table of Contents

Educational Leadership1


Educational Management1

Educational Leadership and Management2



Conceptualising educational leadership and management3

Relevance of good theory to practice3

Nature of theory4

Characteristics of Theory5

Models of educational management6

Formal Model7

Managerial Leadership8

Limitation of formal models8

Collegial Models9

Participative leadership10

Limitation of collegial model10

Political models11

Sources of power12

Transactional leadership13

Limitations of political model14

Subjective models14

Postmodern leadership15

Limitations of subjective models16

Ambiguity models16

Contingent leadership17

Limitations of ambiguity models17

Cultural models18

Moral leadership18

Limitations of cultural models18

Comparison of management models19




Educational Leadership

In the beginning of 21st century, it is believed that quality of leadership can bring significant changes in school and students outcomes. For this, schools increasingly require effective leaders and managers to give their students best possible education. Schools required trained teachers, but teachers also need highly effective principal with senior and middle managers for their support in return. (Bush, 2007, pp. 391)

School leadership role is not just performing the role of school head, as the nations' society and school communities relies on school leaders, so school leadership also an instructional leader and policy implementer. (Hashim et. al, 2010, pp. 557)


Educational Management

Term educational management is defined as an area of study and exercise involved in the operational activity of educational institutions. It has been observed time to time that educational management should be related with the aims or purpose of education (Bush, 2005, pp. xx).

These aims or purposes give fundamental direction to support the educational institutions management. (Bush, 2006, pp. 2)

In educational management: process of identifying the aims of organisation is very important. (Sharma, 2009, pp. 3-4)

Majorly in schools, principal decides the aims, working with the leading management team, it also sometimes include school governing body. Schools aims are significantly affected by external factors too; this includes government expectations, sometimes expressed through legislation or formal policy (Bush, 2007, pp. 393).

Educational Leadership and Management


Leadership is affecting others' actions in attaining desired goals. Peoples with leadership skills shape goals, motivation and actions for others, and it regularly brings in a change to achieve new and existing aims (Bush, 2006, pp. 2).


Management consists of several activities, which includes planning, organizing, leading and controlling, used on organisations' resources for achieving goals and objectives effectively (Griffin, 2006, pp. 5).

Management often performs leadership role, but its overall aim is towards maintenance rather than bringing in change.

Managing and leading are both important as different situations and occasions call for divergent responses (Bush, 2007, pp. 393). If schools want to be effective and achieve theirs objectives, equal importance should be given to management and leadership. Managing and leading are different but important too. In challenging environment organisations seeks for the managers with clear vision, and leadership skills (See Appendix, Quotation 1).

Principals during practice as well as in their routine work sporadically identify their leading or managing role. They are just doing work for schools' benefit (Leithwood et al., 1999).

Conceptualising educational leadership and management

The importance of leadership and management in creating and sustaining successful schools and also education systems have been identified, but still there is less conformity about what leadership behaviour to adopt for most favourable results. Knowledge of alternative approaches is important to provide ...
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