Kidneys are important organs responsible for filtering blood and excreting excessive fluid and metabolic products out of body. However, in the cases of PKD, with the enlargement of cysts, they will oppress the surrounding nephrons resulting in renal function decline. As a result, many waste products will accumulate in blood. In order to reduce the burden to kidneys, the patients with PKD should keep strict dietary principles like low-salt, low-protein, low potassium and so on. As for milk, eight ounces of low-fat milk contains 8 grams of protein, 230 mg of phosphorus, 366 mg of potassium and 290 mg of calcium, the high levels of these minerals can aggravate the renal function. Moreover, drinking too much mike has adverse effects on the bones. Bones are mainly composed of calcium and phosphorus. The healthy kidneys can keep these two minerals balance in bones and blood. However, once PKD causes kidney dysfunction, kidneys can not reabsorb the calcium from food eaten for poor activation of Vitamin D. Afterwards, low blood calcium levels will cause bones to release more calcium thus weakening them. In addition, much phosphorus builds up in blood for kidney dysfunction. The raised phosphorus will combine with calcium causing calcifications, which also cause the level of calcium in blood to decline. In turn, more calcium will be released by bones. Therefore, the patients with PKD should limit milk consumption, especially for those with kidney dysfunction. Moreover, there are also other dietary principles for PKD patients (Stiver, pp. 121).
Phosphorus compounds are involved in vital functions for living things, so it is considered an essential chemical element, although recent experiments suggest that some forms of life could be replaced by arsenic. It is part of the molecule of Pi (' phosphate inorganic ') and the molecules of DNA and RNA and phospholipids in lipid membranes. The cells use it to store and transport energy through adenosine troposphere. Furthermore, the addition and removal of phosphate groups to proteins, and phosphorylation, respectively, is the primary mechanism for regulating the activity of intracellular proteins, and thus the metabolism of eukaryotic cells such as sperm (Khasawneh, pp. 14).
Dialysis is a process that removes the toxins that the kidney does not eliminate either not work for an infection or some other factor that has not been determined. This process must occur in a room toilet to avoid the risk of contracting a blood infection during the process. Diseases that lead to impaired renal function may be reversible or irreversible. In the first case we speak of Acute Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure in the second. In both cases, when the kidneys are no longer able to cleanse the body of waste produced daily by the body's metabolism and lose the ability to eliminate normally liquids introduced, it is necessary to resort to means which allow purification similar to that which make the kidneys. This "replacement" of the function is called renal dialysis. The healthy kidneys can keep these two minerals balance in ...