Effectiveness of Counseling as an Intervention on Smoking Cessation in Developing Countries
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW1
Smoking Cessation in Developing Countries1
Forms of Counselling Methods used in Developing Countries3
Delivery of Counselling Services5
In Clinical Settings5
Family Practice Preceptorship Program6
Effectiveness of Counselling Methods used in Developing Countries7
Counselling Methods as an Intervention to Smoking Cessation in Developing Countries9
Individual efforts for quitting11
Barriers of Smoking Cessation11
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review of the study would be based on providing literature about the various forms of counselling methods sued and how counselling services are delivered. The literature review will also provide the counselling methods being used as an intervention of smoking cessation. Cigarette smoking remains a worldwide health concern. It is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, accounting for 1 in 5 deaths each year. Within the addiction and concurrent disorder population, cigarette smoking is even more pronounced. The health concerns of individuals in this group related to their drug or alcohol use is further compounded by the negative health risks related to cigarette smoking. Historically, addiction treatment specialists felt that expecting clients who engage in addiction treatment to simultaneously abstain from cigarettes, as well as drugs and/or alcohol, would be counterproductive to recovery. Over the last 10 years, researchers in this area have challenged this belief, and in fact, have cited a strong statistical association that attributes tobacco abstinence as a positive predictor to recovery from drugs and alcohol addiction.
Smoking Cessation in Developing Countries
According to a study by Abdullah and Husten (2004) the rise in smoking in developing countries is considered to have a devastating outcomes and it is expected that by 2030 the death toll as a result of smoking is to rise by 7 million deaths annually. Many smokers are willing to quit smoking but they get addicted and it becomes difficult to quit. There are many cessation interventions available in the developed world, but the affordability and applicability in the developing countries is not clear. Successful intervention techniques should be used and action should be taken at international, local and national level. Smoking cessation is considered as an effective mean for reducing smoking and promotion of smoking cessation in developing countries and provides role of public health action in this regards. This framework consists of provision of intervention from health care workers for development a model for developing countries in changing the social acceptability of smoking, mobilisation of the business community, strengthening national commitment, development of guidelines and increasing the collaboration between countries and developing initiatives to achieve it.
Smoking cigarettes is the considered as the main cause of death throughout the globe and yet there have been very few advances in counselling therapies that help people quit. Gender differences in smoking among veterans are similar to those in the general population in that significantly fewer female veterans smoke than male veterans, with an estimated percentage of 25% women and 39% men; however, the percentage of female veterans who smoke is still significantly higher than the national ...