Evolution Of American Campaigning

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Evolution of American campaigning

Evolution of American campaigning


The practice of political campaigns in the United States is seen as the vanguard of the campaign industry. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that the U.S. is an international "campaign model." The world is following the American-style campaign, the application of the methods, concepts, strategies and tactics. Many now recognize this "new politics" post material standards, cognitive mobilization (manipulation of the media), and pragmatism-modeled or influenced by the American style of politics. The global spread of U.S. techniques and marketing campaign is fueled by the internationalization of the firm's consulting and campaign promoted by similar ideological political parties and mass media in the world (Gregory, 1993).

Discussion and Analysis

In the United States, several studies document the decline of "old style" campaign and the emergence of "new style" campaign. The new campaign style is perceived to consist of four dimensions: new actors, new incentives, new tactics and new resources. First, new players are political consultants. Although political parties, candidates and voters are still a part of the electoral process, the current campaigns are focused "consultant." The centrality of political consultants (or "spin doctors") is certainly in America, but the pattern is exported around the world: Israeli election campaign, 1999 U.S. top consultants like James Carville, Bob Shrum, Stanley Greenberg, and J. Arthur Finkelstein were hired by the major candidates. U.S. political consultant's campaign designed around the world. Global Survey of Political Consulting (1998-2000), for example, shows that 57% of the top U.S. political consultants offering their services to foreign institutions in the 1990's (Marzio, 1979).

Two thirds of these consultants are engaged in consulting activities in more than one geographic region. Latin America was the largest foreign market for U.S. industry consultant. About 64% of the top U.S. consultants participating in election campaigns foreigners working there. The second important market in Europe, followed by post-communist countries. Less important markets, but were still profitable in Asia, Africa and Middle East.

New players are, in fact, representing the professionalization of campaigns, a process based on the assumption that non-political "modernization" of the policy requires management of processes, including elections, by professionals who represent progress in the confidence in citizen participation (the fans). Professionalism is more concerned about "winning" the elections and less about the long-term qualities of democracy and citizenship.

The "Americanization" of political campaigns around the world raises some concerns about the impact of this process. The professionalization of the campaign, combined with a strong emphasis on the personification of the political system can lead to the devaluation of the traditional structure of party organizations. More worrying is the evidence that American news coverage and media policy issues and focus on campaign issues directly causes an increase in cynicism and lack of voter participation. The focus on the game of politics, rather than its substance, can feed a cycle of cynicism, trapping the media, politicians and voters. Several researchers have also concluded that negative campaigns are the demobilization of alienating voters and ...
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