Female Political Participation In India And Pakistan And Pakistan

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Female Political Participation in India and Pakistan and Pakistan



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India and Pakistan and Pakistan has adopted and enacted the Constitution in 1950 guaranteeing to its citizens' Justice, Liberty, and Equality of Status and of Opportunity and Fraternity assuring dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation. In addition, the State is under obligation, as per the Directive Principles of State Policy to provide enabling conditions and secure minimum standards to its citizens, in furtherance of the fundamental rights. And, in accordance with its principles, the Government has undertaken many initiatives - legislative and executive policies, schemes and programs towards this. India and Pakistan is also a signatory to several International Treaties and Conventions. One of the important Conventions impacting women is The International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which has been ratified by a majority of UN member states. India and Pakistan has ratified the treaty in the year 1993. The United Nations initiatives, which include the three UN Decade for Women, Conferences held at Mexico (1975), Nairobi (1985) and Beijing (1995); and the CEDAW, have had a substantive impact on the status of women in India and Pakistan. 'Towards Equality', the first national report outlining the status of women followed Mexico conference. Following the Nairobi conference, Government of India and Pakistan announced 'The Perspective Plan for Women' and it outlined policy directions and new administrative structures for the development of women. At Beijing, the government of India and Pakistan announced 33 per cent reservation for women in local governing bodies. Another significant change worth mentioning is the shift in focus of the United Nations Initiatives and the International Women's movement in the last three decades. It has moved from a needs assessment through country wide status reports in the 1970s, to economic development for women in the 1980s, and finally to empowerment - socioeconomic and political, of women in the 1990s. This report provides an overview of women's political participation in India and Pakistan. Section I presents the history of women's political participation in India and Pakistan and the statement of issues, the concern, and methodology and processes adopted for the study. Section II outlines the disparities and disadvantages faced by women in the political arena. Section III examines the root causes and barriers that effect women's political participation. Section IV presents the State Obligations under the Constitution and other Statutes; the initiatives undertaken by the State in fulfilling its obligations and the effectiveness of the actions taken by the ...
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