Galata is located on the north side of the Golden Horn, in the direction of Taksim Square. Galata was surrounded by walls built by the Genoese, until the 19 th century. These walls began in Azapkapi at the Golden Horn. Galata Tower was the northernmost observation tower and the walls come down Tophane from this point. Her name was "Sykai" (rice field) during the Byzantine period. It is also called "Peran EN Sykais" in Greek, which means rice field on the other side. Its name "Pera", which was used Levantines came from this origin. Origin of Galata was either "galaktos" (milk), in Greek or "Calata" (stairs) in Italian.
Galata is located on the European part of Istanbul both geographically and culturally. It was established as a Western, Catholic and Latin colony in the vicinity of Constantinople, the capital of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire. Their governments changed hands between the Venetians and the Genoese, but he always remained Latin and Catholic churches (www.trekearth.com/gallery). This does not change after the conquest of Istanbul. However, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror made it a residential area for Greeks and Jews. Even if it is done Galata non-Latin place, it was still a non-Muslim area near the capital of Islam.
Thus, the "other side" means not only to the other side of the Golden Horn, but it also means the other party in the cultural sense. Sometimes people on the Galata side of the enemy in Istanbul. New Galata betrayed when local residents were crusades latin occupied Istanbul in 1204. Galata helped the Latins in the course of this occupation, and in Istanbul, was sacked by the Latins. This incident was one of the reasons for the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
Galata was not faithful to the Ottoman Empire either. Galata was an important center for the regulation of "surrender", which caused the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Empire was heavily indebted to the Galata bankers since the early 19 th century and that the economically plundered the empire. Furthermore, the Greek bankers of Galata supported Greece in its independence from the empire.
Galata was a very active business center since its inception. She was also the center of nightlife in the taverns, which attracted the Muslim population, too. But Galata lived its golden age, during the second half of the 19lh century. Foreigners and minorities have new rights to political reforms Sultan Abdul-Majid's in 1839 in addition to capitulations.This rapid wealth creation and improving of Galata.
In 1860, the area inside the walls of the Genoese was not big enough to Galata. Thus, the walls were destroyed, and Galata was expanded, and Istiklal Street (Today) and "Grand Rue de Pera", called Levantines, became a luxury district. First, were foreign embassies and churches. Then, big houses, luxury apartments, shopping centers and entertainment centers and art have been built on Istiklal street. Houses thereafter. People called this area "Beyoglu", which was increased Galata called "Pen" at Levantines (www.lonelyplanet.com).
Tram on Istiklal streetIn short-term infrastructure problems of the new district had been ...