Gender Functions In Publication Advertisements

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Gender functions in publication Advertisements



Iwould take this opening to thank my study supervisor, family and friends for their support and guidance without which this study would not have been possible.


Purpose - reason of this study is three-fold: to provide latest clues in U.S on frequency of look of role of gender portrayals in print advertisements; to contrast feminine function stereotypes over publication types; and to discover interface between feminine function stereotypes and merchandise categories.Findings - study shows that women in U.S publication advertisements are mostly depicted in adorning roles; and that feminine function stereotypes alter considerably over publication types. outcome furthermore proposes that there is an association between merchandise classes and feminine function stereotypes.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Advertising is characterized by focus on visual reminders such as expression, pose and gesture reflects the considerable degree of social values, operating norms, beliefs and stereotypes of society. In some cases, images in advertising to act as an agent in consolidation and restructuring of norms of society and beliefs, evaluate "good life" and the depiction of sexuality (Pollay, 1986, Martin and Gentry, 1997). Relevant literature (Cortese, 1999; Lazarus, 2006; Kilbourne, 1999; Lysonski, 1985) indicates that advertisement clearly contributes to gender inequality through promotion of "sexism" and distorted body image ideals as valid and acceptable. Sexism refers to portrayal of women and men in bottom manner with respect to their ability and potential.

focus of this study on female stereotypes role in print ads can be viewed in context of debates about mass media and post-feminist discourse. In particular, modern media are filled with stories about "genderquake" (toward women) that contribute to rhetoric and symbolism of women's opportunities and personal freedom. Nevertheless, modern media try to endorse appearance of the female body with the "retro-sexist" portrayal of women in advertising (Gill and Arthurs, 2006). Retro-sexism, both social and stylistic phenomenon is based on communication and cultural aspects of sanctioned femininity associated with concepts of dependence, attractiveness, and adherence to house (Whelehan, 2000; Williamson, 2003). While some neo-feminists suggest that retro-sexism in advertising appears on empowerment of women, others have argued that this phenomenon serves as the reaction against feminism (Gill and Herdieckerhoff, 2006).

present study draws evidence from context of U.S, which represents "the society where images of women as objects proliferate and even conflict with popular account of the world torn apart by" genderquake "(Whelehan, 2000, p. 3).

It is also interesting to conduct such studies in Britain, which, although classified by Hofstede (2001), "masculine" societies are increasingly witnessed the high level of interest in gender role of image in advertising since 1970 (McDonald, 1995). This interest has been supported by government agencies (for example, Commission Equal Opportunities and National Centre for Social Research), non-profit organizations (such as Advertising Standards Authority), educational institutions and business and consumer organizations. Stressing also importance of women in society and media, Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) has funded the series of interdisciplinary seminars in U.S on "New femininity." It seems that British women are phasing out outdated notions ...
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