Globalization Impact On Countries

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Globalization Impact on Countries

Globalization Impact on Countries


This paper examines the interaction among the forces that shape world politics in the contemporary system: globalization, and regionalization. The main thesis suggested here is that these forces cannot be assessed in isolation, neither independently from one another, nor from a perspective of either convergence or divergence among them. Rather, globalization and regionalization should be captured and studied as forces relative to and overlapping one another, sometimes antagonistic and sometimes cooperative toward each other, but never harmonious. This contention is theoretically relevant both in the context of the world political finances and of worldwide security (with special reference to security complexes and pluralistic security communities).


There are three possible options regarding the mutual relations between regionalization and globalization, especially in the economic dimension: (1) regionalization as a constituent of Globalization (convergent trends); (2) regionalization as a dispute or Response to Globalization (divergent trends); (3) regionalization and Globalization as aligned Processes (overlapping trends) (Mittelman, 1996).

Regionalization as a Component of Globalization

Regionalism is appearing today as a potent force in the processes of globalization. If globalization is regarded as the compression of the temporal and spatial aspects of social relations, then regionalism may be understood as but one component, or 'chapter' of globalization (Mittelman 1996). According to this outlook, by helping nationwide economies to become more comparable in the world market, regional integration will lead to multilateral collaboration on a international scale, the adoption of liberal premises about cooperation, and the unfastening of the local economies. Thus, the method of regional integration can be interpreted as part of the worldwide (or worldwide) financial order at the end of the twentieth years; if impelled by raw material forces (of the market), then it becomes a outcome and a constituent of globalization (Reynolds, 1997). Moreover, since globalization unfolds in uneven rather than consistent dynamic patterns, it may disclose itself in processes that are less than geographically international in scope. Therefore, globalization may be conveyed through regionalization (Holm and Sorensen 1995).

Regionalization as a Challenge or Response to Globalization

Is regionalism a means toward certain thing additional other than globalization? Can regionalism lead to a more pluralistic world order populate by diverse and distinct patterns of socioeconomic organizations that are accountable to their populations? (Mittelman, 1996) Unlike the first trend, the impetus toward regionalization might stem in this case from a reaction and challenge to the amorphous, undemocratic, and inexorable economic rules of globalization. This answer can be motivated by either nationalistic/mercantilistic or pluralistic/humanistic anxieties (in identical situations, even by both). In the first location, by creating trade blocs and integration structures founded on mercantilistic premises, regionalism resists the neoliberal 'harmony of interest' outlook of the world finances in favor of nationwide (and regional) loyalties and frameworks. Conversely, the propel in the direction of the formation of districts might be furthermore inspired by the renunciation of a single universal culture (and ideology) and the advancement of alternate or pluralistic forms of communal and political associations other ...
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