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Table of Contents



History of Hacking3

The birth of personal computers5


Effects on Society8

Effects on individuals8

Effects on economy and organization8

Effects on countries9

Social and Economic Impact9

Legal Schema11

Difference between Hackers and Crackers12

What motivates hackers?13

Tools and methods of hackers13

Some hacking techniques14

The scam14






Internet has become an essential part of our lives these days and our life has been dependent on the internet. Cyber world has opened many opportunities for us for example reference material, electronic commerce, email, collaborative computing, information distribution and advertisements etc (Randall, 2000). Hacking can be defined as creative innovation as well as type of illegal behavior. This is a type of activity that has occupied two extreme positions. Hacking is defined as cut chop roughly, it is something that is used to improve the performance of the battle boredom by the mainframe operators. There are different types of hacking. Software hacking and information hacking etc (Randall, 2000).

History of Hacking

In the early sixties, in the middle of American social revolution, was born an "anti-technology movement and anarchist institutions. It is in this movement that is grafted on phreaking (diminutive of freak, and free phone, literally bitten the free phone), which is a practice of hacking the phone system (Pipkin, 1997). The purpose of phreakers was fully aware of the operation of the telephone system (often better than the technicians telephone companies), especially to know his faults, and so the foil to allow them to make free long distance calls. However, access to free long distance calls was often not the purpose of phreakers: they simply wanted to know the phone system.

This practice of phreakers lasted a decade during which were formed discussion groups, clubs and publications aimed at circulating information accumulated on how to circumvent telephone systems. Teleconference lines, in the late 1960s, enabled the rapid development of community's phreakers and increasing the practice. It was not until October 1971 with the publication of the article by Ron Rosenbaum in Esquire magazine, "Secrets of the Little Blue Box" that the American public became aware of phreakers and the practice of phreaking. This article is a key moment in the history of phreaking as from this moment several U.S. states took legal action to prohibit this practice (McClure, 2003).

Once an intruder or malware sneaks in through the back door, its first step is usually to spread as widely as possible. Stuxnet again illustrates some of the well-known strategies. It proliferated by using an operating system mechanism called autoexec. Windows computers read and execute the file named AUTOEXEC.BAT every time a new user logs in. Typically the program locates printer drivers, runs a virus scan or performs other basic functions. Yet Windows assumes that any program with the right name is trusted code. Hackers thus find ways to alter the AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that it runs the attackers' code.

Attackers can also use clever methods that exploit the economics of the power industry. Because of deregulation, competing utilities share responsibility for grid operation. Power is generated, transmitted and distributed under contracts obtained in online ...
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