History-American West

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History-American West


Creeks are a Native American people originally from the southeastern United States. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Muscogee branch of the Muscogean language family. They were a part of the Mississippian culture, which was located throughout the Mississippi River valley. The early Spanish explorers, according to historian Walter Williams, encountered their antecedents.

In contrary to Creeks, The Cherokee are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee). Linguistically, they are connected to speakers of the Iroquoian-language family. In the 19th century, their oral tradition told of their having migrated south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times.

In the 19th century, the Cherokees were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had assimilated numerous cultural and technological practices of European-American settlers. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, with more than 300,000 members, today they are the largest of the 563 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States.

Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is located in Cherokee, North Carolina.

History-American West

The Cherokee entered Georgia from the east during the 1400's, as the Moundbuilder culture began to decline. Over the next 3 centuries they pushed west, pressured by European settlers from the coast. During this time period they frequently did battle the Creek Indians who controlled the land.

In 1755, after a victory at the battle of Taliwa, the Cherokee established their border as the first ridge south of the Chattahoochee River. Slowly, the Cherokee populated the former Creek lands. By the end of general hostilities with the settlers in 1793 the Cherokee controlled all the land that now encompasses North Georgia's Chieftains Trail.

Cherokee leaders included James and Joseph Vann (original owners of the Vann House), Major Ridge (builder of today's Chieftains Museum) and John Ross, leader of the Cherokee Nation. It was Ross who led the nationalist movement, including the building of the first Capital, New Echota, to prevent its destruction by the intrusive (and illegal) laws of the state of Georgia.

Ross and Ridge, as representatives of the Cherokee Nation, struggled to keep their homeland. Developing after Georgia's Sixth Land Lottery, a group of Cherokee known as the Treaty Party advocated voluntary removal to the so-called "Indian Lands" (present-day Oklahoma). Ridge was slowly being drawn into the Treaty Party by the erudite arguments of his son and nephew, both of whom were members.

In 1835 the Treaty Party signed the Treaty of New Echota, which gave the Cherokee Nation to the Federal Government. At the time less than 500 (out of 17,000) Cherokee belonged to the Treaty Party. In spite of attempts by the Cherokee to have the treaty rejected, the Senate approved the treaty by a single vote. Three years later the Nation was forced ...
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