The HIV-1 is a complex mix of diverse epidemics within and between countries and regions worldwide, and is undoubtedly the defining public health crisis of our time. Research has deepened our understanding of how the virus replicates, mutates, and hides in an infected person. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics has become more nuanced and expanded options for prevention, cure or protective vaccine remains elusive. Antiretroviral therapy has turned AIDS from an inevitably fatal disease to a chronic, manageable disease in some settings. This transformation has not been done in parts of the world continue to bear a disproportionate burden of new infections with HIV-1 and are the most affected by the increased morbidity and mortality. Over the past three decades, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed more than 25 million men, women and children around the world and has become an international public health crisis. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) epidemic has spared few regions in the world and has been particularly devastating in sub-Saharan Africa, where over 60% of all HIV-infected adults and 90% of infants infected HIV reside. The global response to HIV in many parts of the world is still inadequate, despite a deep understanding of the major risk factors for HIV transmission and improving surveillance data defining the nature of the epidemic (Stets, 2003).
Discipline 1: Biology
Definition and Description of HIV
HIV is a virus. Viruses such as HIV cannot grow or reproduce on their own, they must infect a living cell to replicate (i.e., make new copies of themselves). The human immune system often finds and kills viruses fairly quickly. However, HIV attacks the immune system itself, ie who is responsible for getting rid of the virus. The HIV virus causes AIDS development by damaging the cells of the immune system until it can no longer fight off other infections that are often avoidable. It takes an average period of 10 years for someone infected with HIV develop AIDS. However, this average is based on feeding the infected person in reasonable shape. More precisely, someone who has problems of malnutrition may develop AIDS more quickly. HIV is found in blood and sexual fluids of an infected person and in breast milk from an infected mother. The HIV transmission occurs when sufficient amounts of these fluids enter the bloodstream of another person.
HIV and Globalization
The growing traffic of goods and people that characterizes the modern era of globalization has affected the security and the blood supply in many ways. The increasing commoditization of the blood, notably but not exclusively in the field of plasma products has eroded some of the historical barriers between countries and improved supply of essential products for countries unable to pay for them. Another infectious disease threats posed by globalization, fueled also by the changes have been successfully addressed by the developed world and the strengthening of the security infrastructure of the blood through the development of new ...