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Importance of Science and Scientific Culture in British Industrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Importance of Science and Scientific Culture in British Industrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries


From its earliest days late in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution became an ongoing process that spawned continuous changes in virtually every area of society, first in England, and soon after in the United States and elsewhere. The Industrial Revolution—perhaps more aptly named industrialization—emerged side by side with evolving capitalism and continuing impulses for democracy. It shaped our economy, politics, and culture, while gradually urbanizing our geography and harnessing the land's resources to fuel factories and their outputs. It continues to be a force in the global political economy (Hudson, 1992, pp. 218-263).

Revolution began with the mechanization of the textile industry, the development of iron manufacturing techniques and increased use of refined coal. On the other hand, the introduction of steam power and electrical machinery supported the dramatic increase in production capacity. In general, the Industrial Revolution is credited with producing economic surpluses that led to higher living standards, improved health and nutrition, population growth, and longer life spans for large segments of the population. At the same time the Industrial Revolution was creating great wealth, however, it also was creating great poverty around the world (Hartwell, 1971, p. 45).

The Industrial Revolution triggered increased consumption of coal to fire machinery, unlocking massive amounts of carbon that had been stored in the Earth and releasing pollutants into the air, water, and soil (Luke, 1985, pp. 37-84). The interplay between supply and demand is evident in the implementation of increasingly efficient production techniques and a growing population that intensified resource use and created environmental problems. Warnings about resource depletion and pollution, especially after the Civil War, led to calls for conservation and some government regulation. The Conservation Movement emerged after 1900 and engaged the government in efforts to manage industrial resource use and control pollution (Stewart, 1992, pp. 21-98). In addition, the government was increasingly drawn into industrial development to ensure efficient commerce with the construction of transportation and communications systems, as well as a banking system to ensure the orderly transfer of funds. Government has played an active role in facilitating market development since the nation's beginning, through internal improvements that reshaped both settlement patterns and the landscape to facilitate market development (Hobsbawm, 2001, pp. 44-65). In the next section, we will examnie the importance of science and scientific culture in British industrialization.


Discussion & Analysis

In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century a series of technological advances led to the Industrial Revolution(Pierce, 2005, pp. 88-120).

In the British economy and society the Industrial Revolution saw a rapid transformation; in the past the factories should be near the rivers or the forests. A new age stared when the use of coal engines spread out that allowed them to be placed in large urban centers. This was the reason for the more efficient production of goods than the cottage industry of a previous ...
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