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Italy According to John White in Art and Architecture In Italy 1250-1400, outstanding centered designs, lavish components, sumptuous hue, secret lighting, and stylized representation recount such works as Ravenna's San Vitale and St. Marks Basilica. The Italian Romanesque was intensified in Lombardy, Tuscany, and Southern Italy. The Lombard architecture was renowned for large vaulted places of adoration made of complicated exterior brick. In Tuscany, Pisan architecture superimposed tiers of marble cascades as in the Pisa Cathedral. The Cefalu and Monerale Cathedrals in Sicily are representations of south Italy architectures.

     According to Michael Baxandall in Painting in the 20th Century, the Mannerist architects such as Giulio Romano engaged academic motifs in a strange and odd way. Romano favoured to use vague connections and odd ornamentation. Such painters as Pontormo, Parmigiannio, and Bronzino answered to the confrontations and dislocations of their age by emphasizing the unnatural and irrational . Compositions were elongated, compressed, asymmetrical, and entangled (Baxandall 89, 92, 93, 94).

     Florentine architects very resolute the conceive for early renaissance buildings. Churches were constructed by a centered or a rectangular plan. Residential castles were evolved round a centered, arcaded courtyard. The connection of architectural percentage and human scale was a anxiety from the works of Brunelleschi. Florentine structures for example the Pazzi Chapel accomplish a serenity and clarity of conceive from the use of mathematical ability and easy components (Spivey 36, 38, 42, 43). The prescribed and thoughtful works of Leon Battista Alberti, leveraged the next lifetime of Florentine architects. Leons use of monumental mass, focus on geometric connections, and academic method are shown in Sant'Andrea, Mantua (Spivey 44,45). During the High Renaissance, Rome did well Florence as the center for architectural and creative talent. The patronage of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante by popes Julius II and Leo C assisted conceive one of ...
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