Learning And Communication

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Theories and Principles for Planning and Enabling Learning

Theories and Principles for Planning and Enabling Learning


There are certain theories & principles of learning & communication that provide skills, social competence and complete awareness about ideas. Following are the theories & principles discussed briefly.

Behavioral Approach

Person eats, drinks, walks, talks, blushes, and learns in different ways that reflects their behavior. This is the behavioral approach through which psychologists study their behavior rather than their inner state of working. (Kolb 1976, pp. 56) This study refers to the onset of any stimulus and then the outcome of reaction commonly known as stimulus-reaction theory in which only stimuli and reaction is important without considering the process taken inside in any individual. (Arthur, 1990, pp. 53-55) As learning is referred to modification in behaviors through training and experience. According to this theory psychologist J.B Watson proposed that there is nothing as conscience and mental functions but the important aspect is man behavior that develops his character based on his habits. Thorndike also supported this theory that believes on observations of human character. (Baldassarre, 1990, pp. 79-81)Cognitive Approach

Cognition or cognitive processes means that individual's memory, thoughts, ideas, perceptions, understanding, and interpretation processes that help in solving problems, planning and imaginations. This theory is purely based on the memory functionality. Individual interaction with environment is studied where important factor is development of insight when individual encounter with any sort of problem, determine its solution, its aims and objectives. In this theory the learning material must not be broken up into pieces rather it is taken as a whole as we assumed a house made up from cement, bricks or other materials, airplane is a combination of machinery, collection of words printed on this paper etc. (Selten, 1993, pp. 123-124)Insight is a quality of any individual to perceive, imagine the problem and then learn its solution as whole depending upon skills and accuracy.Social Approach

Social development means the improvement of individual activity with contrast with his heritages. So this theory deals with environmental and situational determinants. According to this theory learning is continuous process that occurs in combination of personal and environmental variables. Environment shapes the behavior of a person and in return the same person behavior shape up the environment. Individual learns from observation, from behavior when rewarded or punished. People can learn by observing other person and make consequences as experienced by those persons. In the same way when any individual is being rewarded or punished they learn that particular situation. The social changes can be obtained by direct words of approval or disapproval, by observation others, and by self-administering. (Aghion, 1991, pp. 621-654)

Adult Learning Theory

Part of being an effective educator involves understanding how adults learn best (Lieb,1991, pp.89). Andragogy (adult learning) is a theory that holds a set of assumptions about how adults learn. Andragogy emphasises the value of the process of learning. It uses approaches to learning that are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic, and also emphasises more equality between the teacher and ...
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