Maternal Alcohol Drinking During Pregnancy

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Maternal Alcohol Drinking During Pregnancy

Maternal Alcohol Drinking During Pregnancy


The hazardous dangers of alcoholism during pregnancy have been known for decades. However, even with the vast information given to pregnant mothers, with labeled warnings on every alcoholic beverage, pregnant women still continue to pick up the bottle of alcohol, continuing their journey to the destruction of their bodies and the road of dangers for the unborn child. Perhaps every person who has little to no knowledge in health care, are still able to comprehend and recognize the consequences of alcoholism during pregnancy. Although many women are aware that heavy drinking during pregnancy can cause birth defects, many do not realize that moderate—or even light—drinking also may harm the fetus. It is vital to protect the rights of the unborn baby simply doing all that we can in ending the alcoholism epidemic during pregnancy. Each person can do this by taking a step toward prohibiting the sale or simply ending the purchase of alcohol. The use of alcohol during pregnancy causes much alarm to society. A lot of crimes, violence, and mental retardation and physical defects result from the abuse. Pro-life organizations and advocates, doctors and medical researchers have tried to work hand in hand to study and expose the ill effects of pre-natal exposure to alcohol. More are concerned with the physical and psychological effects of alcohol on children. To discuss this issue more thoroughly, this paper will be divided into several parts: (1) background of the study; (2) the effects of pre-natal exposure to prohibited alcohol; (3) effects of too much alcohol intake; and (4) other factors that may prevent or intensify the serious effects of drug and alcohol abuse from pre-natal onwards.

Smoking Behavior and the Transtheoretical Model of the Stages of Change

The famous transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change is often used to guide clinicians who are trying to promote smoking cessation. Smokers often need help in order to quit successfully. It can be very difficult to overcome a long-time habit or addiction if you do not have the proper guidance from a professional. When the TTM is applied in the setting of smoking cessation, the goal is to move a patient from one stage to the next stage. This is a gradual progression that takes time and people usually don't jump through several stages at one time. The stages of change within the TTM are:


At this stage the person is not even thinking about the behavior change. The person may be unaware of the need for change, or the person may be in denial. He or she has not personally considered making a change in lifestyle or behavior. In the case of smoking, the person has no thoughts of quitting. He or she has never considered quitting and has never thought about the harmful effects of smoking. There is no motivation to quit since the person has never seriously entertained the thought.


Once a person reaches contemplation, he or she begins to seriously consider the pros/cons ...
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