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The performance benefits, health risks and intracellular mechanisms of promoting skeletal muscle growth by pharmacological means

Table of Contents


Endocrine physiology3


Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy's Physiology4

Satellite Cells4


Growth Factors5

Insulin Growth Factor6

Fibroblast Growth Factor6

Hepatocyte Growth Factor6

Growth Hormone7


Critical Analysis7



The performance benefits, health risks and intracellular mechanisms of promoting skeletal muscle growth by pharmacological means


The paper is designed to define the chief hormonal factors that establish the stability between human skeletal muscle catabolism and anabolism in health and disease, with particular reference to sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss). It describes the associated mechanisms with muscle hypertrophy and the key function of highlighted satellite cell. The dynamics of biological satellite cells vary among the states of proliferation, quiescence, and differentiation are greatly determined by the factors of local endocrine. The mechanism of molecular muscle atrophy is focused on the causes of sarcopenia and connections by means of systemic medical disorders. Moreover, proofs are furnished that the mechanisms of hypertrophy and atrophy are uncertain to opposites. The mechanisms of endocrine underpin mechano-transduction, which includes the subtypes of IGF-I that can produce difference between mechanical and endocrine signals. On other hand, their association with the factors of classical endocrine is an energetic area of the literature. This writing piece covers the knowledge over the method of anabolic effects of androgens and growing function of myostatin, and adverse controller of muscle function is also elaborated in the therapeutic target. It has been observed that by the help of exercise, the muscular function done against an increasingly challenge, which leads to gains in cross-sectional area and muscle mass that is known as hypertrophy. The question raises that why and how the muscle cell grows? The literature is demonstrated to better recognize the multifaceted facts of hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

Endocrine physiology

The system of endocrine works in the course of chemical messengers to coordinate with bodily functions. This system preserves the inner environment (homeostasis), operates the utilization and storage of energy substrates, shapes reproduction and growth, possibly and controls the responses of body to exterior stimuli, mainly stress. The basic endocrine physiology is grounded on the principle endocrine glands, adrenal glands, the pituitary and thyroid. The meaning of endocrine is internal secretion. The molecule of endocrine regulatory (hormone) is a substance that release inside the body, which is known as the ECF “extracellular fluid”. On the counter side to exocrine secretions, it releases to the outer environment. The instance of exocrine secretion is the secretion of digestive tract. In this manner, stomach, pancreas and small intestine's cells secrete substances, for instance digestive enzymes arouse in the digestive tract lumen.


The factors of Endocrine influences muscle growth and development during life and conditions of hormonal deficiency or excess adversely impact on both muscle function and structure (Veldhuis et al. 2005). The function of muscle cells such as syncitium forms the muscle fibre, which is the chief cellular activator of this procedure that is making the satellite cell (Wozniak et al. 2005). The series of transcription components act on satellite cells, comprising myogenin, MRF4, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), Myf5 and ...
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