Microbial biofilms are for the most part concerned with etio-pathogenesis of periodontal and caries ailment. Due to its characteristics, microbial biofilms cause immense disputes. Regular and continuous interruption of these biofilms is very important for the management and prevention of oral ailments. Thus, this research paper provides a comprehensive approach into the methods, properties of etio-pathogenesis, finding and elimination of these microbial biofilms.
Microbial Biofilms (Consequences for Health)
A microbial community is a defined population of different types of microorganisms living in association with one another. The association may take many forms, such as nutrient sharing, protection from the environment, or establishing a habitat. Communal associations among microorganisms usually provide benefits that the cells would not receive if living as individuals, called plank-tonic cells (Fox, 2007, p.03). Microbial communities create conditions by which microorganisms can withstand stresses in the environment. Some species in the community perform activities that benefit the entire community, as well as themselves. Other species appear to benefit from the community but do not contribute to it, at least in ways that microbiologists have so far discovered (Fox, 2007, p.03). In the broadest sense, a microbial community helps all the members exploit the environment for all the members' survival.
In biology, a community is one component of the overall ecological organization. Ecologists define different levels of organization within Earth's biota to describe the roles various species have in Earth ecology (Costerton, 2007, p.05). The main levels, from the least complex to the most complex, of biological organization are as follows:
Individual cells—the basic unit of all living things
Population—group of interacting individuals of the same species occupying a specific area
Community—all the populace of various species existing in and interrelating in an area
Ecosystem—one or more communities interacting with the physical features in an area
Biosphere—all Earth ecosystems
In microbiology, few species live by themselves in nature, and the terms population, community, and ecosystem have been used interchangeably. For instance, the microorganisms that live in soil are often described as soil populations, soil communities, or the soil ecosystem (Lens, 2003, p.114). By the stricter definitions described here, soil microorganisms can be viewed in the following context:
Soil population—Nitrobacter species that participate in one of the major steps in nitrogen cycling, called nitrification
Soil community—nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying, nitrate-reducing, and denitrifying genera that operate the nitrogen cycle reactions in soil
Soil ecosystem—nitrogen cycle microorganisms; plants that absorb nitrogen; soil, water, and organic and inorganic nutrients; and soil inanimate matter that affects the chemical and physical conditions in the habitat
Microbial ecologists study all of these aspects to gain information on the roles that bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa play in the health of the biosphere. Instances of communities studied in microbial ecology are the following:
Photosynthetic bacteria and algae in a lake
Anaerobic bacteria and protozoa that digest fiber in the rumen (the stomach in ruminant animals)
Sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in microbial mats
Bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of human skin
Marine microorganisms living in the uppermost coating (photic zone) of the ocean
Bacteria that make up dental plaque
Biofilms that coat the interior of water distribution pipes ...