Monetary Policy And Behaviour Of Financial Markets

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Monetary Policy and Behaviour of Financial Markets

Monetary Policy and Behaviour of Financial Markets


A financial market is a mechanism that allows people to easily buy and sell (trade) financial securities (such as stocks and bonds), commodities (such as precious metals or agricultural goods), and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect the efficient-market hypothesis. Financial markets have evolved significantly over several hundred years and are undergoing constant innovation to improve liquidity(Steven, 2008).

Both general markets (where many commodities are traded) and specialized markets (where only one commodity is traded) exist. Markets work by placing many interested buyers and sellers in one "place", thus making it easier for them to find each other. An economy which relies primarily on interactions between buyers and sellers to allocate resources is known as a market economy in contrast either to a command economy or to a non-market economy such as a gift economy. In foreign exchange, the complete network of governments and institutions that affect currencies. The system has a set of agreed-upon rules that allows for international trade of goods and services. The rules and procedures for exchanging national currencies are collectively known as the international monetary system. This system doesn't have a physical presence, like the Federal Reserve System, nor is it as codified as the Social Security system. Instead, it consists of interlocking rules and procedures and is subject to the foreign exchange market, and therefore to the judgments of currency traders about a currency. Yet there are rules and procedures—exchange rate policies—which public finance officials of various nations have developed and from time to time modify. There are also physical institutions that oversee the international monetary system, the most important of these being the International Monetary Fund(Steven, 2008).


Financial markets worldwide reflect ongoing deleveraging pressures amidst a deepening economic downturn. In spite of extensive policies, the global financial system remains under intense stress. Moreover, worsening economic conditions are producing new, large writedowns for financial institutions. In response, balance sheets are being cut back through asset sales and the retiring of maturing credits(Steven, 2008). These actions have increased downward pressure on asset prices and reduced credit availability. Restoring financial sector functionality and confidence are necessary elements of economic recovery. However, more aggressive actions by both policymakers and market participants are needed to ensure that the necessary deleveraging process is less disorderly. A broad three-pronged approach—including liquidity provision, capital injections, and disposal of problem assets—should be implemented fully and quickly so as to encourage balance sheet cleansing. At the same time, international cooperation will be required to ensure the policy coherence and consistency needed to re-establish financial stability.

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