Nigeria And Brazil

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Nigeria and Brazil

Nigeria and Brazil


It was against this background that Brazil entered, in 1930, what could be called the modern phase of its history in 1930. In that year, an oligarchic republic was overthrown by a movement involving both civilian leaders and young army officers. The major political goal of the movement was to brake down the power of state oligarchies and enhance that of the central government. In substantive terms, the new leaders, helped by the crash of 1929, were concerned with the industrialization of the country and with the social question. The first World War had taught the military the importance of industry for national defense.

In Nigeri case the announcement by the Babangida Government that a four-year transition process to civil rule would be completed by 1992 has opened up the possibility for the rest:oration of democratic government in Nigeria.1 Although there is a general determination to end military rule and return to democracy, Nigerians are having great difficulty defining their objectives and finding the means of achieving them. Much of the unrestrained enthusiasm for the creation of the second Republic in 1979 is now gone and there is a greater realism (Holman 1996).

Comparision between Nigeria and Brazil

Steps towards Political Democracy in Brazil

The First Steps (1930-1964)

The labour movement had called the attention of the civilian leaders to the need for a social policy. As a consequence, extensive labour legislation was introduced immediately after the victory of the movement in sharp contrast with the previous regime that did not consider the social question a matter of concern for the federal government. Also, for the first time, national political movements emerged inspired by the examples of Italian fascism, German nazism and Soviet communism. Political mobilization was short lived, though. A civilian dictatorship, backed by the military, was imposed on the country in 1937(

A national movement in favour of the nationalization of oil prospection, production and refining resulted in the creation, in1954, of Petrobrás, the state oil company. Petrobrás became a symbol of Brazilian nationalism. The forces responsible for the status quo, namely, landowners, businessmen, the military, the Catholic Church and the middle classes, became wary of the direction things were going. A cry against the danger of a communist take-over of the country was soon heard. In 1964, with the open support of the United States government, the conservative forces reacted to the political mobilization with a military coup. The democratic experiment had lasted only 19 years. What had been learned in terms of political organization and participation was in great part lost(

A Step Backward (1964-1985)

Initially seen as preventive and temporary intervention, the military movement radicalized in 1968 and a full dictatorship was imposed on the country. Although less bloody than similar regimes implanted in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, it was violent enough to arrest, torture and kill hundreds of opponents. Close to 5,000 people were punished. Politicians lost their mandates, union leaders were deprived of their political rights, thousands of public ...
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