Northern Canadian Geography

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Northern Canadian Geography

Northern Canadian Geography


The Northwest Territories consist of a mainland portion of Canada, which extends west of the tree line, south of the Beaufort Sea and other Arctic waters to the east. Northeast Area of the North West Territories is extremely diverse, including the tundra, the tree line, the Arctic coast as well as islands within the Arctic Ocean. This territory is highly significant for Canadian economy. The region of interest within the Canadian North is the Northeast Northwest Territories because in this vast stretch of land there are several factors that in the past, present and future have long-term effects on the land (Barlas, 1998). The Northeast Area of the North West Territories was created in 1870 following the transfer of territories held by the Company of Hudson Bay to the Government of Canada. Before the transfer, the Company had a vast area covering the whole modern Canada except the colony of British Columbia on the Pacific coast and the Canadian Confederation.


Environmental Changes

Fauna and Flora

Some different kinds of flora and fauna can be found in Northeast Area of the North West Territories. Some different kinds of environments can be found in the Northeast Area of the North West Territories. The muskeg is like a swamp or wet environment located in the northern regions of the world. The word 'muskeg' was originally an Algonquin term meaning "swamp grass." The muskeg is composed of dead plants broken down by different kinds of bacteria or fungi. Canada has over muskeg than any country in the world. Canadian muskeg approximately 10 000 years and was covered with glaciers during the last ice age. Several different kinds of plants grow in the muskeg, including moss and black spruces (tamarack).

Going further north, the environment turns the muskeg to tundra. Tundra is the name for much of the land in northern Canada. On the tundra, there are long, cold winters and short trendy summers. On the tundra is permafrost, or permanently frozen ground, which does not leave the tap roots grow. That is why there are no trees on the tundra. While the Tundra has no trees, several different kinds of plants grow there (Desaulniers, 2003). For example, there are shrubs, herbs, lichens and mosses - small plants that do not have taproots.

Many animals live on the tundra, including caribou, musk oxen and polar bears. Several species of birds come to nest on the tundra. Lichens, fungi and mosses are undemanding plants without roots growing throughout the Arctic, and providing an important source of food and energy for wildlife. Lichens are small enough. They attach directly to the rocks so they can grow where there is no land. Lichens can grow in extremely cold climates, so they easily survive in the frigid climate of the Arctic. There are over 900 different species of lichens in the Arctic.

A fungus is a simple plant that has no roots, shoots or stems or leaves. We must have probably eaten some kind of fungi growing ...
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