Psychology could be defined as the science that attempts to understand human behaviour in the world. General experimental psychology and behavioural studies as separate processes, while the Personality Psychology is especially interested in the integration of these processes that form a separate unit overall.
This differentiation is built up of the motivation that drives and directs. For this reason the study of personality in the field of general psychology is primarily interested in motivation and its influence on perception, learning and cognitive processes in general. The clinical approach includes the total personality of a patient, i.e. how you perceive yourself and your environment, your desires, conflicts that haunt him, his private life and intimate and social behaviour. Thereby explain mental functioning. (Amie, 2003) The emergence of Experimental Psychology, which uses the scientific method, determines that the object of knowledge of psychology is behaviour that is all verifiable and measurable in man. For behavioural conditioning is pure personality.
Personality psychology is also interested in the study of attitudes, opinions, and traits of character. There psychometric methods used to discover individual differences as well as those trying to group the personality characteristics according to types according to the features of their structures. Psychoanalysis tries to understand the personality through the various stages of development, taking into account the relationship between early childhood experiences and character traits of the adult. Every human individual has a character as well as a personality or that there is no one who lacks personality. (Peter Simons 2007)
Psychoanalytic approach and to personality
Origin and background of the psychoanalytic approach
The psychoanalytic approach of Erik H. Erikson is based on the written by Sigmund Freud theory of psycho-sexual dynamics. This assumes a "constant conflict between two parts of the personality the id and the superego, from, by the ego is appeased. It's called the unconscious part of the personality and the starting point of the primary drives. The ego represents in this context, the mediator in the conflict between the id and the superego and reality-oriented (ibid.) Unlike Freud, Erikson puts in his theory more weight to the influence of the ego and not (as friend) to the id (pleasure principle). It extends the model of Freud's five to eight phases, since it considers that the development of man is not finished with puberty, but rather to the "age" to continue. (Terry Horgan, 2008)
The individual phases of the theory are marked by biological maturation characteristics of the organism, which naturally are accompanied by different needs, skills and conflict. Erikson describes each phase in ten dimensions:
1.Psycho-sexual dynamics 2. Psycho-sexual terms 3. Psychosocial crises (conflict) 4. Psychosocial modalities 5. Radius of caregivers 6. Strengths 7. Antipathies 8. Elements of the social order 9. Reutilization binding 10. Ritualism
For the purposes of Freud understands the psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders as the result of inappropriate psychological processes. A combination of biological and plant interactions with the environment create conditions under which children develop a self-concept, in which ...