Phantom Limb Syndrome

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Phantom limb syndrome

Phantom limb syndrome


In medicine and psychology, a syndrome is the association of some clinically recognizable characteristics, signs (observed by a physician), symptoms (reported by the patient), phenomena or characteristics that often happen simultaneously, in order that the occurrence of one characteristic alerts the physician to the occurrence of the others. In latest decades, the period has been utilized out-of-doors medicine to mention to a blend of phenomena glimpsed in association. (Flore, 2002)

Phantom limb is the period for abnormal sensations seen from a before amputated limb. The abnormal sensations may be painful or nonpainful in nature. It is presumed to be due to centered and peripheral nervous system reorganization as an answer to injury. Phantom limb pain is often advised to be a pattern of neuropathic pain, an assembly of pain syndromes affiliated with impairment to nerves. Phantom limb syndrome was first recounted by Ambroise Pare in 1552. Pare, a French surgeon, observed this occurrence in fighters who sensed pain in their amputated limbs. Mitchell coined the period "phantom limb" in 1871. (Denver, 2004)


Phantom limb pain seems to arrive from where an amputated limb utilized to be and it is often excruciating and nearly unrealistic to treat. New advances, founded on a better comprehending of the brain's function in pain, may be unfastening the way to new treatment. Phantom limb syndrome can be subdivided into phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Stump or residual limb pain mentions to pain that may persevere at the residual location of amputation and may be grouped under phantom limb syndrome as well. (Flore, 2002)

The onset of pain after amputation generally happens inside days to weeks, whereas it may be delayed months or years. Pain may last for years, and tends to be intermittent other than constant. Pain may last up to 10-14 hours a day and can alter in severity from gentle to debilitating the abnormal "phantom" sensations and pain are generally established in the distal components of the missing limb. Pain and tingling may be sensed in the appendages and hand, and in the smaller limbs, in the toes and the feet. (Denver, 2004)The incidence of phantom limb pain is approximated in 50-80% of all amputees. Phantom limb sensation is more common and happens in all amputees at some point. There is no renowned association with age, gender, or which limb is amputated. Studies have shown a declined incidence of phantom limb syndrome in those born without limbs versus genuine amputees. (Denver, 2004)The accurate etiology of phantom limb pain is unknown. Phantom limb is considered to be lesser to the mind plasticity and reorganization. The human mind has a tremendous capability to adjust its attachments and function in answer to everyday discovering or to the setting of injury. These methods of reorganization may happen in kept nerves in the amputated limbs, the spinal cord, or diverse components of the mind, encompassing the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. (Denver, 2004)Although phantom pain is most likely an outcome of an ...
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