Pine Tree Ecosystem Service Risk Report

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Pine Tree Ecosystem Service Risk Report

Pine Tree Ecosystem Service Risk Report

Executive Summary

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is the international work program designed to meet needs of conclusion manufacturers and public for technical information concerning consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and options for answering to those changes. The MA focuses on ecosystem services ( benefits people obtain from ecosystems), how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades, and response options that might be adopted at local, national, or global scales to improve ecosystem management and thereby contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation. The exact matters being addressed by assessment have been characterised through consultation with MA's expected users.

Ecosystem Service Risk Report


Trees are signs of a community's environmental health. While built-up ecology is more convoluted than just tree cover, trees are good signs of the wellbeing of an built-up ecosystem. When trees are large and wholesome, the environmental systems-soil, air and water-that support them are furthermore healthy. In turn, wholesome trees supply precious ecological benefits. The larger the tree cover and the less the resistant exterior, the more ecosystem services are made in periods of decreasing stormwater runoff, expanding air and water value, saving and sequestering atmospheric carbon and decreasing power utilisation due to direct shadowing of residential buildings.

Pine trees are conifers (cone bearing) plants like numerous others such as cypresses, cedars, firs and redwoods. Each stage is as crucial as one previous to it. All stages are needed to grow the adult pine tree ( The life cycle of the pine tree is the continuous one, with successful completion of previous one essential to move to next stage. The life cycle of the pine tree consists of pine cones, pollen, seedlings, adult trees and finally death.

Cross-matching patterns of the dated chronology with overlapping series of samples taken from dead trees of unknown age preserved in old buildings, river gravels, peat bogs, or lakes, allows chronologies to be extended into past up to thousands of years (for example, chronology for Bristlecone pine greater than 8,500 years before present time). By statistically comparing tree-ring chronologies with modern weather notes, equations can be evolved, which can be utilised in conjunction with tree-ring data to reconstruct past climate values (


Pine Cones

Some pine cones are feminine while other ones are male. These cones comprise of levels, with kernels concealed underneath. Each pine cone has numerous bent groups of scales that have two kernels on every scale. The scales at bottom and at head of cone are smaller and do not contain seeds (


Male pine cones emit pollen (the yellow residue) in springtime. The pollen blows in wind and arrives to rest on female cones. This method is called pollination. As the result, seeds grow inside of female cone.


In hot, dry weather scales of pine cones open and seeds fall to ground. The kernels typically augment in springtime, anchoring roots in ground bring in ...
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