Prenatal Development

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development


Recently, the westernization of lifestyle increased drinking and smoking habits in women's. Especially in young women's, more and more opportunities of tobacco and smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy adversely affect the fetus, there is no cure that can be prevented by abstinence and non smoking.

The influence of the activities and health-related habits of the mother, and the customs and laws of their culture in relation to health, disease and various harmful substances better prepare some newborns than others to a long and healthy life.

Avoiding Complications

Despite the complexity, of prenatal development, and many dangers for the organism in gestation, the vast majority of babies born healthy and competent. Many prenatal development potential risks can be prevented or corrected through the care of the pregnant mother .


Improve the chances of a newborn are the goal of teratology, which is the scientific study of birth defects or genetic problems caused by prenatal or birth complications. Therefore, the substances are teratogenic factors (viruses, drugs, smoking) or conditions that lead to prenatal abnormalities.

Psychoactive Drugs

Although some of these drugs can cause physical abnormalities, teratogenic effects are negative in nature in term of behavior. These effects occur because these drugs damage the brain and nervous system of the organism in gestation. Following are some main reason, which affects parental, development.


Alcohol as a threat to civilization and social formation is the cause of many congenital malformations in children. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is decreasing. This is mainly due to increased awareness of women. But still every fourth woman drinks alcohol regularly during pregnancy. Alcoholism mother has a double negative impact on children. Often the partner is an alcoholic and an addict.

Mating pairs of people with similar tendencies not only leads to duplication of genetic material but predispose a child to falling into alcoholism. Harmful effects of alcohol on the fetus are also at increased risk of miscarriage, perinatal infant mortality rates higher and higher incidence of congenital central nervous system. Fetal brain is most susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol during development-the fastest in the first trimester of pregnancy, when organs formed. Chronic alcoholism causes damage to the mother during the prenatal birth.

In newborns cases, mothers who drink during pregnancy, was observed immediately after birth the presence of withdrawal symptoms (increased muscle tension, fatigue, sleep disturbance, tearfulness, etc.).

Fetal alcohol syndrome (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - FAS)

It is characterized by low birth weight and poor general state of the newborn (e.g.| frequent heart defects, deformities of joints), delayed psychomotor development and the presence of numerous malformations (mainly facial and osteoarticular system) . These symptoms accompanied by various neurological disorders, and lower cognitive ability and behavioral disorders.

The diagnosis of FAS is enough to declare a smaller height, weight and head circumference (<10 perc.) Developmental disorders face (microcephaly, microphthalmia, short gap Eyelid, smooth upper lip with a narrow area of red, poorly educated or absent larval podnosowa lip, flabby chin) and mental retardation. The changes are the result of a direct teratogenic effect of alcohol on ...
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