Programming Language~

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Programming Language

Programming Language


The programming languages are C, FORTRAN or Pascal which, enable programmers to develop a program and, these languages and programs are independent of the types of computer. These languages are considered as the high level languages because, these languages are written in user friendly language. These languages are not dependent on machine because, machines have their own language such as machine language. When user writes certain a program in a high level language then, it is converted into machine codes. These codes are different from high level languages and, computer easily understands such codes and, these languages are translated from high level language to machine language through different processes. All machine languages are different from other machines languages and vary from computer to computer. For example, Intel processor has the different machine language and, there is a difference between 80826 and i586. Though, they are from the same family and, low level programs which are written for i586 will not work on 80286 and, they are machine independent (Sebesta, Robert W., 2008).

When we consider the high level program such as pascal compiler, source code can work for 286 and also 586 and, this is machine independent. When there is a need to write a program in machine independent language, then there is a need on this machine to convert the language into the particular machine language that can be read by machines.


Programming paradigms are the methods of writing a program in a structured way. Languages are becoming sophisticated and, also programing paradigms.

There are four major programming paradigms such as imperative paradigms, functional paradigms, logic and object- oriented programing.

Imperative Programming

The imperative programming is the oldest and, well known programing paradigm because; all the previous imperative languages were machine languages. FORTRAN was the first language which was created in 1954 and, considered as the imperative programming language. This programing is the fundamental of all the hardware implementation because, it is straight forward and, related to machine language. The steps in this programming are the instruction and, directly implemented on the hardware (Reddy, U. S., 1996).

Functional Programming

The first programming language with functional concepts was created in late 1950s and, was LISP. These languages contain various concepts on a pure level as compared to other paradigms and, they are the most useful languages than other programing languages because of the presence of functional concepts. The major concepts of this programing is high order and pure permission in order to create the digital or hard copies for the personal use and, found without fee and, copies were not allowed to distribute for gain. In order to copy or republish there was the need of particular permission or fee (Reddy, U. S., 1996).

Logical Programming

Logical programmings are also used in other programming paradigms than the original logical programming paradigms. The pure logical programming paradigm is Prolong. In this programming, each step is analyzed by a set of rules and, commonly referred as ...
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