The term Supply Chain Management / Supply Chain was proposed by U.S. experts (in particular, by Arthur Andersen) in early 1980 and subsequently became very popular. Since 1989, scientists from different countries are trying to structure this notion.
One of the most common definitions of supply chain based on a synthesis of the views of many leading foreign experts is as follows: the supply chain - three or more economic units (enterprises or individuals) directly involved in internal and external flows of goods, services, finance and / or information from the source to the consumer. Based on this definition we can conclude that the supply chains there are three difficulty levels: direct supply chain, extended supply chain and the maximum supply chain. Direct supply chain consists of companies, suppliers and consumers engaged in foreign and / or the internal flow of products, services, flow of finance and / or information
Recognized by the American scientists in the field of Supply Chain Management D. Lambert and J. Stock so define this concept: supply chain management - the integration of key business processes, starting from the end user and covering all providers of goods, services and information that add value for customers and other interested list. Raskryvaya this definition, they indicate that supply processes. The declining costs of logistics have lasted growth in both Internet retailing and in specialized mail order retailing. At the same time, information technology and electronic commerce have played an important role in enabling the goods transportation industry to reduce costs arid improve services dramatically. For example, onboard computer systems, such as those being investigated by Cons obligated Freightways in the case included in this chapter. Have become essential tools of business for transportation providers today. However, as the Consolidated Freightways case illustrates, the path to achieving these savings is filled with many areas of uncertainty and risk for 'nose firms pioneering in the use of electronic commerce tools and technologies. Today, most transportation providers have the ability to track product shipments electronically from the time of pickup to final delivery, and many allow their customers to link into their on-line databases to be able to verify the location and expected delivery time for any package. Chain management - is the integration of eight key business
External environment with detailed analysis
Relationship management with customers, Customer service, Demand management, Control the execution of orders, Support industrial processes, Supply Management, Control product development and bringing it into commercial use, Management returnable material flows. Until recently, the concept of SCM is actually seen as synonymous with "integrated logistics", performed outside the central company, and includes customers and suppliers. Judging by the definition of CLM is always focused on the logistics supply chain, starting from the place of manufacture of the product and ending point of its consumption. As pointed out by D. Lambert and J. Stock, the main difference comes from the fact that ...